Cello Playing in 19th Century Germany
Part Two

ANTON KRAFT was born on December 30, 1752, in the little Bohemian town of Rokitzat. After his School education was finished he entered the University of Vienna, in order to Study law. There he soon began his musical career, and, as he had already diligently practised Violoncello playing in his father's house, and had acquired remarkable proficiency, he did not find it difficult to procure a position in the Imperial Hofkapelle. Joseph Haydn, to whom he was introduced as clever, appointed him, in 1778, to the orchestra of the Prince Esterhazy. As, however, this artist-patron died at the end of September, 1790, the band was done away with, and Kraft returned again to Vienna, where, in the year 1793, by his conjunction with it, the Schuppanzigh String Quartet was founded, which used to play every Friday morning in the house of Prince Lichnowsky. Kraft was himself occupied, however, until 1795, in the band of Prince Grassalkowitz, and later on in that of the Prince Lobkowitz. He died at Vienna on August 20, 1820.

Of Kraft,'s compositions were published-six Sonatas for Violoncello, with Bass (Op. 1 and 2) ; three concerted Duets for Violin and Violoncello (Op. 3) ; a Violoncello Concerto, with orchestro, (Op. 4) ; two Duets for two Violoncellos (Op. 5 and 6), and a Divertissement with Bass.

Amongst Kraft's pupils his son, Nicolas, and Birnbach must be mentioned. HENRICH AUGUST BIRNBACH, born 1782 at Breslaw, went in 1792 to Berlin, and there learnt Piano and Violoncello playing. The year 1802 found him at Vienna, where he enjoyed the instructions of Kraft and was employed in the opera orchestra. Two years later Count Lubomirski engaged him for his private band in Galicia. But in 1806 he returned to Vienna, and in 1812 he accepted an engagement as first Violoncellist at the Theatre of Pesth. From 1822 to 1824 he remained at Vienna, occupied himself zealously with the "Chitarra coll' arco," invented by a certain Stauffer, wrote a Concerto for it, and played it in a public assembly. In the year 1825 he at length received an appointment in the Hofkapelle at Berlin. He seems to have belonged to it until his death.

NICOLAS KRAFT, born at Esterhazy, in Hungary, on December 14, 1778, began his musical practice in his fourth year, on a large tenor which he possessed, something like a Violoncello. Two years later he played a solo before the Prince Esterhazy, which his father had written specially for him with this object in view. At eight years of age he made a tour, accompanied by his father, and performed at concerts favourably in Vienna, Presburg, Dresden, and Berlin. On his return, the young Kraft sought to fill up the gaps in his general education, which, until then, had been neglected, and this took up five years. During the time he only occupied himself with his instrument as a recreation. In 1796 be entered with his father into the Lobkowitz band. The prince, who took a great interest in the youth, and cherished the wish that he should cultivate still further his art, granted him the means of going through a course with Louis Duport at Berlin. This happened in the year 1801. He afterwards went to Holland, in order to be heard there. Prince Esterhazy meantime desired his speedy return, so that he could not pursue farther the journey he had begun. On his way home, he went to Leipsic, Dresden, and Prague, exciting great enthusiasm everywhere by his performances.

Nicolas Kraft was engaged in the year 1809 as solo cellist for the imperial Opera, but retained also his connection with Prince Lobkowitz, who offered him a permanent salary, under the condition that he should never play anywhere without his permission, except in his Palace. This, however, did not continue, because the Prince fell into serious money difficulties from the year 1811, and was no longer free to dispose of his ruined fortune. But Kraft was indemnified in another manner. At the Congress of Princes in 1814, he played before an assemblage of crowned heads in Vienna, and the King of Wurtemburg experienced such great pleasure at his performances, that he named him his Chamber Virtuoso. He now settled at Stuttgard, and thence took a journey, in 1818, to the Rhine, which he extended as far as Hamburg. Here he became acquainted with Bernard Romberg, who gave him every encouragement, and showed it by giving with him two concerts publicly, when he went to Stuttgard in 1820. In the year 1824 Kraft wounded the first finger of his right hand, on account of which, after futile attempts at curing it, he was obliged to retire. He spent his pension in Stuttgard, where he died on May 18, 1853. Kraft composed for his instrument four Concertos, nine Duets (three of which are marked as "Divertissements"), a Polonaise, a Bolero, a "Scene pastorale," a "Rondo a la chasse," and two Fantasias, of which one is an arrangement of airs from the "Freischiitz." Nicolas Kraft had a son whose Christian name was FRIEDRICH, whom he likewise educated as a clever cellist. He was born on February 12, 1807, in Vienna, and belonged to the Stuttgard band as chamber musician. Nothing further is known of him.

About the same time as Anton Kraft, Friedrich's grandfather, JOSEPH LINKE, the violoncellist already mentioned, was at work in Vienna for some years as a distinguished quartet player. He was born on June 8, 1783, in the Silesian town of Trachenberg, received his first instruction from his father, and after his death pursued his studies under a certain Oswald. In his twelfth year he went to the Dominicans at Breslaw, there his teachers in cello playing were Lose and Flemming; for theory he studied under the organist Hanish. Lose was a member of the theatre orchestra, and when he relinquished the post Linke took his place. He remained there, however, only until 1808, when he went to Vienna. He was engaged immediately by Schuppanzigh for the house quartet of Count Rasoumowski, which existed until the year 1816. After the dissolution of this Society, Linke was attracted to Croatia by the family of Count Erdbdisch. Two years later he again appeared in Vienna, in order to work at the theatre there as soloist. Thirteen years later he received an appointment in the same capacity at the Imperial Grand Opera. His death took place on March 20, 1837.

Linke's published cello compositions consist of a Concerto, three books of Variations, a Polonaise, a "Rondoletto," and a "Caprice" on Rossini airs. Whilst the elder Kraft and Linke, whom Beethoven likewise held in great esteem, represented in Vienna violoncello playing from a purely artistic point of view, JOSEPH MERK did so more especially on the virtuoso side.

JOSEPH MERK: This artist, born on January 18, 1795, at Vienna, who was originally to have been a violinist, and had already in his younger years made great progress, had the misfortune to be bitten so severely by a dog that, even after the wound was healed, he was never able again to bring his left arm into the requisite position for violin playing. He therefore took up the Violoncello, on which he received instruction from Philippe Schindlocker. Under his direction, Merk made such rapid progress that already after the lapse of a year he was engaged as quartet player by a Hungarian magnate. He remained at this post two years, when he made a tour through the Austrian dominions in order to make himself known in a wider circle. In 1816 he was appointed first Violoncellist to the Grand Opera at Vienna. Three years later he entered the Imperial Kapelle, and, in 1821, the Professorship for the Violoncello was entrusted to him at the Vienna Conservatoire, which institution later on acquired such importance in regard to instrumental music. He retained the latter office until 1848. In 1834 the Emperor named him his chamber virtuoso. Soon after he undertook a prolonged tour, visited Prague, Dresden, Leipsic, Brunswick, Hanover, Hamburg, and from the last-mentioned town went to London. In Vienna, Merk enjoyed great favour. "He was," C. Hanslick says, in his "History of Vienna Concerted Music," (p. 245), "indefatigable as an industrious concert-giver, and continually encouraged by public sympathy. He frequently performed at Concerts with Mayseder, whose compositions he played by preference, and might properly be called the Mayseder of the Violoncello... Merk also performed, as cellist, in Bohm's quartet productions. As virtuoso he soon surpassed Linke as well as Friedrich Wranitzky. The latter, who was a son of the violinist and Kapellmeister, Anton Wranitzky, held a respectable position among the Viennese cellists of that period, and, about his twentieth year, frequently played Duets with his brother, the violinist, Anton Wranitzky, at concerts."

Merk died in Vienna on July 16, 1852. Of his Violoncello compositions were published--one Concerto, one Concertino, one Adagio and Rondo, one Polonaise, four books of Variations, "Vingt Exercices" (Op. 11), and Six Etudes (Op. 20). Formerly these compositions were much played, but, in course of time, they have gradually gone out of fashion, like most of the Cello productions of that period.

Amongst Merk's numerous pupils, the most remarkable are-Bohm, Trig, Marx, and the Dutchman, Franco-Mendez.

KARL LEOPOLD BoHm, born November 4, 1806, at Vienna, profited by Merk's instruction in the Conservatoire there. He was successively member of the orchestras of Josephstadt Theatre and of the Vienna Theatre. In September of the year 1824 he went to Dohaueschingen, where he was appointed musician to the Prince of Furstenburg. Thence he under. took a successful concert tour to Switzerland and Germany. When in August, 1849, he was released from his engagement in the Donaueschingen Kapelle, he went to Strasburg and entered the theatre orchestra, and also undertook a series of concerts at Vichy. At the beginning of 1851 the amateur Prince of Furstenburg recalled some of the members of his former band, in order to organize some chamber music. Amongst them was Bohm, who now concluded his artistic career at Donaueschingen. Of his Cello compositions he published a Concerto, Duets, Fantasias, Variations, Polonaises, and some smaller pieces.

ANTON TRAG, son of a Viennese composer, Andreas Trag, was born in 1818, at Schwechat, near Vienna; began his musical education at six years of age, and went to the Conservatoire at Vienna as a pupil of Merk's. On February 28, 1845, he was engaged as teacher of Cello playing for the Conservatoire at Prague. Ten years later however he gave up the post and returned to Vienna, where he died on July 7, 1860. Trag devoted himself by special preference to classical music. He had abundant opportunity of occupying himself with it in the Palace at Clam. Of his pupils,

HEINRICH ROVER distinguished himself, who was born May 27, 1827. Rover belongs to the number of those violoncellists who were at first violinists. As early as eight years of age be decided in favour of the violoncello. Fetis says of him:

"He was about 1868 the cleverest player of his instrument in Vienna." Of his oompositions may be cited-Iydll (Op 1), Mazurka (Op 8), and "Seranade du Savoyard" (Op 11). Rover died in 1876.

JOSEPH M. MARX, born in 1792 at Wurzburg, where be also received his musical education, began his artistic career as member of the Theatre orchestra at Frankfort-on-the-Main, whence he went to Vienna, in order to study under Merk. Later on he worked in the Stuttgard orchestra, until he was appointed first Violoncellist at Carlsruhe. He finally was musical director there, and died while working in this capacity on November 11, 1836. His daughter, Pauline, made her appearance on the stage as a singer during the years 1880-40. Concerning FRANCO-MENDEZ, see the Cello players of Holland.

To the best Viennese violoncellists about the middle of our century belongs CARL SCHLESINGER, born on August 19, 1813. The violin was originally his instrument. After the lapse of three years he devoted himself to the Violoncello. Who his master was is unknown. In 1838 he was appointed solo cellist to the Pesth National Theatre. He gave up this place in 1846, as the opportunity presented itself of entering the Imperial Opera orchestra in the same capacity at Vienna. In 1862 the office of cello teacher at the Conservatoire there was committed to him. Schlesinger's most noted pupils are: Udel, Sulzer, Hummer, and Hegyesi.

CARL UDEL, born on February 6, 1844, at Warasdin, in Croatia was early directed to the study of music by his father, who was Kapellmeister, and went in September, 1859, to the Conservatoire at Vienna. He next occupied himself there with violin playing under the guidance of Professor Carl Heissler. Twelve months after he took up the Violoncello, and for five years received instruction from Schlesinger. In 1867 he was first Cellist at the opera in Pesth; a year later, however, he returned to Vienna and was engaged there, in 1869, for the orchestra of the new opera house. By degrees he rose in his profession, and in May, 1876, he entered the Conservatoire as substitute for Rover, whose duties were then performed by Hilpert for a year. After the resignation of the former, Udel was again elected in his place. In 1878 Cello instruction at the Conservatoire was divided between him and Hummer, who in the interval had been nominated first Cello player of the Imperial Hofkapelle. Hummer received the three upper and Udel the three lower classes. After three years of work the latter obtained the title of Professor. On account of an injured hand, Udel was obliged to give up his place as member of the opera house, since when he has not played in public. He now devotes himself entirely to teaching.

JOSEPH SULZER, born on February 11, 1850, at Vienna, emerged in 1869 from the Conservatoire as one of Schlesinger's best pupils, and was engaged for the Italian Opera, and as master for the Conservatoire at Bucharest. He remained there four years. In 1875 Sulzer received an appointment in the Vienna Opera orchestra. Illness, brought on by over-exertion, compelled him for three years to withdraw from his employment in the orchestra. On his recovery he still further endeavoured to perfect himself, in which the friendly advice of Popper was of service to him, and in 1880 he was appointed solo player at the Imperial Opera. At the same time he gave concerts and taught. He belonged to the Helmsberg Quartet from 1882 to 1885. Sulzer published various compositions and productions for the Violoncello at Breitkopf & Hartel's, and D. Rahter's, and Cranz'.

REINHOLD HUMMER, born on October 7, 1855, at Linz, on the Danube, began his career with violin playing very early at Vienna, where he was brought up, and pursued it with great eagerness for six years. Then an ardent desire was awakened in him to learn the Violoncello. He forthwith began the study of that instrument at the Vienna Conservatoire under Schlesinger's guidance. At his death, H. Rover became his master. On the whole he was four years at the Conservatoire. His progress was so rapid that he carried off the first prize against his fellow students by unanimous consent. After he had left the establishment to which he was indebted for his education, he immediately received an appointment in the opera orchestra to which he has belonged since the year 1873. Four years later he was appointed teacher at the Conservatoire, and in 1878 solo Cellist in the Imperial Court band. He was also given the title of Professor.

Besides his official employments, this much-favoured artist worked at Vienna and elsewhere as concert and quartet player.

Hegyesi will be mentioned among the Hungarian violoncellists.

As an older pupil of the Vienna Conservatoire (1835 to 1839), JOSEPH HUBER must be mentioned, who was born about 1816 at Vienna. According to Fetis, he was heard during the years 1836 and 1837 at the Conservatoire Concerts. Several of his Violoncello compositions appeared at Vienna.

A succession of excellent German cellists emanated from the Prague Conservatoire, opened in the year 1811. At this Institution JOHANN NEPOMUK HUTTNER, born on January 1, 1793, was actively engaged as Violoncello teacher from 1822. He pursued his studies under J. Zimmermann. After they were concluded Huttner joined the orchestra at the Pesth Theatre. Two years later he went to Lemberg. Thence he undertook, in 1820, a concert tour in Poland and Russia, after which he was appointed to the Prague Conservatoire, and the place of first cellist was immediately given to him at the theatre. His playing was distinguished by remarkable skill and delicate tone. In the Adagio his rendering was full of feeling. Huttner was specially appreciated as a quartet player.

Huttner formed an excellent cellist in his pupil, FRANZ HEGENBARTH, born on May 10, 1818, at Gersdorf, in Bohemia. On May 1, 1831, he entered the Prague Conservatoire, and remained there as student until May 16, 1837. Count Kinsky provided him with the means for his artistic education. In May, 1865, the Professorship at the Prague Conservatoire was given to Hegenbarth; it had until then been in the hands of Moritz Wagner, Goltermann's successor. He devoted himself to this until his death, which occurred on December 20, 1887.

Besides several other compositions, Hegenbarth wrote a Violoncello school, though nothing at all of his has been published. Amongst his pupils the following are distinguished: Lang, Grunfeld, and Wihan.

ANTON LANG, born on November 10, 1850, at Carlsbad, from his tenth year played both the Piano and Violin, but decided at thirteen in favour of the Violoncello. In 1865 he became Hegenbarth's pupil in the Prague Conservatoire, When his training was ended Lang was employed as solo player in several concert orchestras. Since 1877 he has been attached to the Grand Ducal Kapelle in Schwerin as first cellist, with the title of "Kammer Virtuoso."

HEINRICH GRUNFELD, born on April 21, 1855, at Prague, went to the Conservatoire there, and profited by the instructions of Hegenbarth. In 1878 he became solo cellist at the comic opera at Vienna and filled this place for two years. In 1876 he went to Berlin, where he worked as teacher of his instrument. From time to time he undertook some successful concert tours in Germany, Russia, and Austria, with his brother Alfred. Everywhere his beautiful tone and his tasteful rendering were appreciated.

HANS WIHAN, born on June 5, 1855, at Politz, in Bohemia, is likewise s pupil of the Prague Conservatoire, which he frequented from 1868 until 1873. At the end of this period he studied for awhile under the direction of Davidoff. His excellent performances procured for him the position of first Violoncellist in the Hofkapelle at Munich, which he filled for eight years with honour. In the spring of 1888 he was nominated to tho Professorship of the Prague Conservatoire as successor to his master, Hegenbarth.

Another of Huttner's pupils, SELMAR BAGGE, must be cited, born on June 80, 1823, at Coburg. (Fetis erroneously says that Bagge was born in Bohemia, about 1815.) He received his musical education from the year 1837 at the Prague Conservatoire, and after he had pursued a course of composition under Simon Sechter, became a teacher of the theory at the Vienna Conservatoire. He relinquished this post in the year 1886, and from that time was chiefly engaged in composition, until in 1868 he was summoned to Basle as Director of the music school. Amongst Huttner's pupils there is also a gifted dilettante, Joseph Edler von Portheim, born on January 6, 1817, at Prague. For many years he has deserved the thanks of the musical world in his native town by his zealous encouragement of chamber music, not only in his hospitable house, frequented by native and foreign artists, but also abroad. Since the foundation of the Prague Chamber Music Society (1876), he has been at the head of the undertaking, to which he devotes his indefatigable care.

Three other pupils of the Prague Conservatoire must be noticed in this place. EBERT, CABISIUS, and POPPER. They all had the benefit of Joh. August Jul. Goltermann's (Not to be confounded with Georg Eduard Golterman, to be mentioned farther on) instruction, who from 1850-1862, as successor to Trag, was teacher at the above-named establishment.

LUDWIG EBERT, born on April 18, 1834, at Schloss Kladrau, in Bohemia, beaan early his musical training in the home of his father, who was royal treasurer of Windischgratz, and was sent in 1846 to Prague in order to study at the Conservatoire.

At first he received instruction from Trag. But when he went to Vienna, Ebert studied two years more under Goltermann's direction. From the autumn of 1852 until Easter, 1854, he was cellist at the opera in Temesvar, and was then engaged as first performer of his instrument for the Oldenburg Hofkapelle, where he worked up to the year 1874. invested with the title of Concertmaster by the Grand Duke, as a mark of distinction, Ebert, in the same year, accepted the offer of being first cellist of the Gurzenich orchestra in Cologne, and teacher at the Conservatoire of the Rhenish metropolis. In this place he remained until April 1888.

At present Ebert is living at Wiesbaden, where he devotes himself to teaching. He has published "Four pieces for Violoncello and Piano in the form of a Sonata" (Op. 3;, and three "Charakterstucke" (Op. 7).

JULIUS CABISIUS, born October 15, 1841, at Halle-on-the-Saal, received his first instruction from his father. During the years 1855-1861, he studied under Goltermann at the Prague Conservatoire. He then became a member of the Court Kapelle at Lowenberg and Meiningen. From the latter place he was summoned, in 1877, to be first Cellist in the royal band at Stuttgard.

DAVID POPPER, born on June 18, 1845 or 1846, in Prague, soon gained for himself, after leaving the Conservatoire of his native town, a remarkable reputation during the concert tours, which he began in the year 1863 as an excellent and cultivated solo player. He received special honour, in 1865, at the Carlsruhe Musical Festival, and in 1867, in Vienna, where, from 1868, he was engaged as first cellist at the Imperial Opera. In 1873 he gave up this post, in order to undertake, in company with his wife, the famous pianist, Sophie Menter, some concert tours, which led him into Germany, France, England, and Russia. He is at present teacher at the Pesth Conservatoire. Popper's playing is distinguished by its very pure and extremely clever technique, as well as by a refined, graceful manner of rendering. He published for the Violoncello two Concertos (Op. 8 and 24), two Suites (Op. 16 and 50), as well as a considerable number of smaller drawing-room pieces, which are in much favour among cellists.

In Berlin, as we saw, a great influence was exercised by France through the brothers Duport. (Also the two Maras (father and son) had an important effect on Violoncello playing in Berlin, though not so great as that of the brothers Duport. Concerning the older and younger Mars, the necessary details will be given in speaking of the Bohemian violoncellists.) But in consequence of the political events of the years 1806-1807, which were the cause of so much suffering in Prussia, it was almost paralysed, for Louis Duport returned to France on the outbreak of the war declared by Napoleon Buonaparte; and his elder brother, who on account of his advanced age could no longer occupy himself with Violoncello playing, went at the same time into retirement. It is, however, possible and even probable that the Violoncellist,

JOHANN FRIEDRICH KELZ, born on April 11, 1786, at Berlin, if he did not actually take regular lessons from him, was able to profit by his occasional advice. (Fetis contests this, for he says: "The German biographers of Kelz affirm he (Kelz) was advised by Duport; but this is erroneous, as at this time (1811) Duport was no longer in Berlin." This could only refer to L. Duport, for his brother remained until his death in the Prussian capital.)

His first years of study were spent by Kelz chiefly with the town musician, Fuchs, under whose direction he occupied himself with well-nigh every kind of musical instrument, amongst which the Violoncello attracted him most. His uncle, Ad. Friedrich Milke, who was himself not a bad cellist, assisted his progress on that instrument. He also provided for his reception into the band of Prince Frederick August of Brunswick-Ols, to which he belonged, from the year 1801, for four years. When this prince died, in 1805, Kelz returned to Berlin, and was nominated, in 1811, Royal Chamber Musician. In 1857 be went into retirement, and died in January, 1862. He must have been much in request as teacher of his instrument. His compositions, the number of which it is pretended extend to about three hundred, are of a very superficial description, and have long fallen into oblivion.

More remarkable than Kelz in Violoncello playing was MORITZ GANZ, who was born at Mayence in the year 1804, and learnt the elements of music from his father. In Violoncello playing he made further progress under the Bohemian Cellist, Stiastny, who at that time was residing at Frankfort-on-the-Maine. Ganz then joined the orchestra at Mayence until, in 1826, he was appointed first Violoncellist in the Berlin Kapelle. During this engagement he undertook, in the years 1833-1837, concert tours to Paris and London. In appreciation of his performances he received from the King of Prussia the title of Concertmaster. His playing, which gave proof of solid cultivation, was artistic, and in every respect made an advantageous impression, without, however, electrifying. His compositions are unpretending, and consist of Concertos, Duets, and Variations.

Among the pupils educated by Ganz the most remarkable are-Rietz, Lotze, Giese, and Klietz.

JULIUs RIETZ, born on December 28, 1812, at Berlin, had, besides Ganz, also Bernhard Romberg for a short time as master, and developed so rapidly that, as early as sixteen years of age, he was received into the orchestra of the Royal Stadt-Theatre of his native town.

Six years later he went to Dusseldorf, and worked as assistant-director at the theatre managed by Immermann, with Mendelssohn at its head; when the latter retired he undertook the sole conduct of the opera, and became also, when Mendelssohn was summoned to Leipsic, town Music Director. He filled this place until 1847, in which year he went to settle at Leipsic, in order to work as "Capellmeister" at the theatre. His work so greatly increased at Leipsic-for he not only undertook the direction of the Academy of Singing, but also, in 1848, the conducting of the Gewandhaus Concerts-that he was obliged more and more to neglect cello playing. In Dresden, whither Rietz went in 1860 as Court Kapellmeister, he almost entirely discontinued performing. In private circles only he now and then caused his instrument to be heard, as his time was wholly taken up by his official occupations, as well as by the direction of the Dresden Conservatoire, which was given over to him, and by the editorial labours connected with the publication of the collected works of the great classical composers, set on foot by Breitkopf and Hartel. In the midst of this varied artistic activity he died on September 17, 1877.

Rietz's Violoncello playing was of an able but simply deserving kind and was limited entirely to the more classical sphere of music. His compositions consist of two Concertos and a Fantasia with orchestral accompaniment. He produced the latter on February 15, 1844, in the Gewandhaus, at Leipsic.

WILHELM LOTZE, born on January 17, 1817, at Berlin, acquired the first elements of cello playing under the royal chamber musician, Topfer (1865), and then Ganz was his master. In 1837 he received an appointment in the Royal Kapelle of his native town, and from 1838-1852 belonged to the excellent Zimmermann String Quartet. Lotze was pensioned in 1872.

JOSEPH GIESE, born on November 24, 1821, at Coblenz on the Rhine, undertook concert journeys through France and Switzerland after he had for some time profited by the instruction of Ganz ; he then went to the Hague, where he became teacher at the Royal School of Music and first Violoncellist at the French Theatre. He educated a large number of pupils. Amongst them we shall mention only his son, FRITZ GIESE, who was born on January 2, 1859, at the Hague. At ten years of age he was so forward that he was able publicly to perform Romberg's second Concerto. He completed his studies under Grutzmacher in Dresden and under Jacquard in Paris. After he had made a journey through Sweden and Denmark, he was for a year soloist in the Amsterdam Park orchestra, and then entered, as a member, into the Mendelssohn Quintet Club of Boston. As one of the chief supporters he took part for a long time in the annual concert journeys of the Society, which extended to North America and Australia. At present he is living as a soloist at Boston.

The fourth of the above-mentioned pupils of Ganz, MAGNUS KLIETZ, born on April 29, 1828, at Altenkireben, on the Island of Rugen, began his musical career at fourteen as a pupil of the Greifswalder town music director, Abel. After a year's instruction on the violin and various wood-wind instruments, he decided on learning the Violoncello, which he chose as his principal instrument. In 1848 he went to Berlin to the Concertmaster Ganz, pursued his studies under him for a year, and then selected Hamburg as his Settled place of residence. In 1850 he was appointed First cellist at the Stadt-Theatre as successor to Joh. Aug. Jul. Goltermann. In this position he remained seventeen years, giving lessons as well. He then joined the Philharmonic orchestra and was one of the founders of the Quartet Union now existing in Hamburg.

After him, as a remarkable Berlin violoncellist, must be mentioned JULIUS STAHLKNECHT, born on March 17, 1817, in Posen. Both Drews and Wranitzki were his masters. Their method of instruction must have been good, for as early as twenty-one years of age (1838) Stahlknecht was so far educated that he was admitted into the Berlin Hofkapelle. He undertook later, in company with his brother Adolf, who was a respectable violin player, a concert tour; and with him and the addition of the pianist Carl Albert Loschhorn, from 1844 or 1846, be gave for some years, Trio Soirees, which were very popular with the Berlin public. After the death of Ganz he stepped into his place with the title of "Concertmeister." In 1881 he was pensioned. He had as his successor the Cello virtuoso, Louis Lubeck. Of Cello compositions he published two Concertos and Several smaller pieces besides-as, for example, Divertissements (Op. 3), a Fantasia (Op. 6), Three Pieces with Piano (Op. 8) and a "Serenade Espagnole" (Op. 11).

Stahlknecht formed an excellent cellist in ALBERT RUDEL, who was born on February 29, 1840, at Wittstock in East Priegnitz, where his father was musical Director. During the years 1859-1867 he pursued his studies at Berlin, under Stahlknecht. On June 1, 1867, he was appointed Royal Chamber Musician, and in the year 1880 solo Cellist of the Hofkapelle. Rudel often had the honour from that time of being admitted to take part in the Royal Concerts. Kaiser William I. liked his playing, and repeatedly expressed to him his approbation. Amongst Rudel's compositions for the Violoncello must be mentioned: Romance (B major), Elegie (D minor), Introduction, Andante e Tempo di Valse, four Fantasias for Concert-room, and many little Drawingroom pieces for pupils. All these productions have a piano accompaniment.

Violoncello playing received a fresh impulse in Berlin by the opening, under the direction of Joachim, of a section of the Royal High School, on October 1, 1869, for executive music. The Belgian cellist, JULES DE SWERT, was one of the first to give the necessary instruction at the above-named Institute. WILHELM MULLER succeeded him from 1873-1876 in this office. Both masters were, however, at the establish- ment too short a time to pave the way for any important results. These were first attained by means of Hausmann's appointment, who since the year 1876 has been working as teacher of Violoncello playing at the Berlin High School.

ROBERT HAUSMANN, born on August 23, 1852, at Rottleberode, in the Harz, frequented the Gymnasium at Brunswick, and benefited there, from 1861-1867, by the Violoncello instruction of Theodor Muller, who advanced him considerably. He was then Eleve of the Berlin High School for Music, and there prosecuted his studies for three years, under the direction of Wilhelm Muller, nephew of the Brunswick master just mentioned. Finally, he went to Piatti, and under him pursued a course in London, and later on at his property at Caddenabia, on Lake Como. Shortly after Hausmann took an engagement with Count Hochberg, in Silesia, as Cellist of the string quartet formed by him, and after this was dissolved, in 1876, he was named second master of Cello playing at the Berlin High School for Music; three years later he rose to the position of regular teacher, and from that time he fulfilled the duties alone in his own department. In 1884 he received the title of Professor in acknowledgment of his deserving work.

Hausmann at the present time belongs to the most eminent masters of his instrument. He is not only a distinguished solo player, but also an excellent quartet player, which is evident from the fact that Joachim has chosen him as his usual quartet associate. Of the pupils formed by Hausmann, until now the following have specially dis- tinguished themselves: Roth, Dechert, Prill, Koch, and Ludemann.

PHILIPP ROTH, born on October 25, 1853, at Tarnowitz, in Upper Silesia, occupied himself in his father's house from his eighth to his twelfth year with violin playing, and then went over to the Violoncello. After he had for some time applied himself to quartet playing with his brothers, he became the pupil of Wilhelm Muller, and later on of Robert Hausmann, at the Berlin High School for Music. He soon took part in the lessons, conducted by Joachim, in quartet and orchestra playing, and also pursued the study of compositiou. under Wihl. Tauberts and Woldemar Bargiel. Settled in Berlin for eighteen years, he only left the capital in order to make concert tours, of which he undertook one three years ago into Russia. He, however, has devoted his powers chiefly to teaching. Roth has also been zealous in the publication of Cello literature. Besides his original compositions, he has published a long list of various kinds of attractive music pieces as arrangements for Violoncello and Piano, as well as a Violoncello school and a "Guide to Violoncello Literature," which latter has also been published separately (At Breitkopf and Hartel's). This list, which ought to be recommended, will, it is hoped, be continued and completed in later editions without delay.

HUGO DECHERT, born September 16, 1860, in Potschappel, near Dresden, received from his father, who is a musician, instruction in violin Playing at six years of age, and from his twelfth year in Cello playing, Until 1875 he profited by the instruction of the chamber musician, Heinrich Tietz, in Dresden, Then began Dechert's practical work. At first he was for a year first Cellist in the orchestra of the Belvedere, on the Bruhl Terrace, at Dresden, and then, after some concert tours in Saxony and Silesia, he was engaged at a Concert Orchestra in Warsaw. In 1887 he went to Berlin. There he had the good fortune, by the acquisition of a scholarship as well as by getting free instruction in the High School for Music, to pursue and complete his studies under the direction of Rob. Hausmann. Since 1881 he has belonged to the Royal Kapelle at Berlin, and he is also occupied as a much-appreciated concert and quartet player as well as teacher.

PAUL PRILL, born October 1, 1860, at Berlin, received from his father, a royal Prussian military bandmaster, his first lessons both in piano, and violin playing. Later on the musical director, W. Handwerg, undertook his instruction on the piano, and the chamber musician, W. Sturm, the theoretical part. At the same time Paul Prill occupied himself in joining the "Cornet a piston." with his father. Only in his seventeenth year, after he had been performing at concerts with his brother and sister under the conduct of his father in Germany, was fulfilled his cherished wish to devote himself to Violoncello playing. In this the chamber musician, Mahnecke, assisted him by giving him gratuitous instruction. After a lapse of nine months he had made such rapid progress on the Violoncello that, having undergone a previous examination, he was received as a free pupil into the High School for Music. He frequented it for four years, and then entered the so-called master class, conducted by Bargiel, in order to perfect himself in the theoretical department; but at the same time he also benefited further by Hausmann's tuition. He soon found, an appointment as solo cellist in the Berlin Symphony Kapelle, as well as in the orchestra of the Italian Opera., From the beginning of September, 1882, until the end of April, 1885, he worked as solo cellist in the "Bilse Orchestra." Such occupation did not suit him for a continuance; he aimed higher, and desired to devote himself to the conducting branch of music. After Bilse had dissolved his orchestra, he found an engagement as Director at the Belle Alliance Theatre, in Berlin. Occasionally also he performed the office of Conductor at the Wallner Theatre. This work, however, did not have the hoped-for result, as there seemed no prospect of a more remunerative sphere of conducting. Paul Prill then determined to accept the place of solo cellist at the German Opera at Rotterdam. With this the advantageous offer was made to him of performing at concerts in and around Rotterdam, yet he did not lose sight of his ambition in regard to the career of Conductor. His wish was fulfilled, for during some time he has been second Kapellmeister of the Rotterdam Opera.

FRIEDRICH KOCK, descended from a well-known Berlin family of painters, was born on July 3, 1862, and began his musical studies in his eleventh, but Violoncello playing only in his fourteenth year. From 1879-1882 he was pupil of the Royal High School of Music, and specially under Hausmann, as well as Succo and Bargiel for theory and composition. In the summer of 1883 he was named Royal Chamber Musician, after he had been submitted to a trial performance. In 1886 he founded, with three of his colleagues, a string quartet, which within a short period has gained a respected position in the Berlin musical world. Of Koch's Cello compositions only two, Opus 1 and 2, up to the present time have appeared.

OTTO LUDEMANN, born on September 7, 1864, at Bernkastel, on the Mosel, after his father had prepared him, was from 1876- 1880 Ebert's pupil in the Cologne Conservatoire, to whom he is indebted for part of his other artistic education. At the beginning of 1880 he went to the Berlin High School of Music, and benefited by Hausmann's instruction, not only in compulsory piano playing but in the theory of music until 1883. In this year he took part in the playing competition for the possession of a vacant cello place in the Royal Prussian Kapelle, in which he succeeded so well that in the autumn of the year 1884 he was nominated Royal Chamber Musician. Besides his official duty he was selected by his master, Hausmann, to be his assistant in the High School of Music, and also commissioned to prepare his advanced Cello pupils for the upper classes-a proof of how highly his performances were appreciated. Amongst others belonging to the older and more modern of Berlin violoncellists are Griebel and Espenhahn.

JULIUS GRIEBEL, born on October 25, 1809, at Berlin, learnt cello playing of his father, who was bassoon player in the Hofkapelle there. As Max Bohrer belonged to it, he also received instruction from him. At the beginning of the year 1827 Griebel was taken into the orchestra and rose to be solo cellist next to Ganz. During the years 1835-1841 he undertook successful journeys to Holland, and later on he visited also Denmark. As chamber music player he found opportunity of distinguishing himself in the Zimmermann Quartet, of which he had been permanent cellist for many years since 1835. He died in 1865.

His pupil, HERMANN JACOBOWSKY, born on October 19, 1846, in Neustrelitz, received instruction in piano playing during his school years from his father, who was clarinetist of the Mecklenburg- Strelitz Court band. At sixteen years of age he decided for the musical profession, chose the Violoncello as his instrument, and went to Berlin in order to take lessons from Griebel; at the same time Rich. Wuerst was his master in theory. In 1864 Jacobowsky entered as solo cellist into the Liebig "Symphonie Kapelle." Six years later he was summoned to Jassy as teacher of cello playing at the music school, but when the Franco- German War broke out he had to hasten to the standard, and took part in the campaign. When it was over, he received a place as Chamber Musician in the Royal orchestra, which had already been promised to him in 1868, consequent on a successful competition.

Jacobowsky has not only made himself known to advantage as solo player, but also in connection with the Soirees in which he takes part with Hans Bishoff and Waldemar Meyer. Besides some Drawing-room Pieces for Violoncello, he published "Tonleiterubungen in funf Stufen" and twenty- two Elementary Exercises in the first position.

L. ESPENHAHN, born at Sandersleben, was at first member of the Dessau Court band, but entered as assistant into the Prussian Hofkapelle, after he had appeared in Berlin as a solo player. He did not, however, remain in this place, but accepted an invitation to join the private band of the Russian Prince Narischkin. After the death of the latter, he was again received into the Berlin Kapelle. Since 1852 he has belonged to the Zimmermann String Quartet, as Successor to Griebel. He was also occupied as teacher in Berlin. Espenhahn died in the year 1879.

For Munich during the first quarter of our century the chief representative of Violoncello playing was PHILIPP MORALT. He belonged to a gifted Bavarian musical family, whose members were employed in the Munich Court Kapelle. This family possessed in JOSEPH MORALT a second younger Cellist. Nothing further is known about him except the fact of his performing so well that he was admitted into the Leipsic Gewandhaus Concert on January 21, 1847, for Solo playing.

JOSEPH MENTER, however, who received his education from the elder of the two Moralts just named, had a greater artistic importance. Born on January 17, 1808, in the Bavarian village of Daudenkofen, near Landshut, he began as so many of his colleagues did, with the violin, but soon abandoned it to take up the Violoncello. He had scarcely completed his twenty-first year before he found a position in the Hohen- zollern-Hechingen band. In 1833 his vocation took him to Munich. He belonged to the Kapelle there until his death, which occurred on April 18, 1856. Menter-he is the father of the well-known Piano virtuosa of that name-made himself known outside his sphere of work by concert tours in Germany, Austria, Holland, Belgium, and England, as well as by several Cello compositions, of which a few were published after his decease.

Menter formed several good Cellists, amongst them the best is-

HIPPOLYTE MULLER. He was born on May 16, 1834, at Hilburghausen, and received his first instruction from his father. His development was so rapid that, at eleven years of age, he already appeared as soloist. He was assigned to Menter for further cultivation, by whose assistance he became a master of his art. In 1854 Muller joined the Munich Court Band as first Cellist. He also undertook the tuition at the Conservatoire. On August 23, 1876, he died at Munich.

His pupil, GEBHARD GRAF, for fourteen years first Violoncellist in the Grand Ducal Kapelle at Brunswick, was born on February 4, 1843, at Waal, near Buchloe, in Bavaria, and attended, from his fifteenth year, the Royal Conservatoire at Munich. He was dismissed from it at the end of four years with a certificate of merit, and then held concerts in Hamburg, Warsaw, Amsterdam, Frankfort, and Munich. Later, he was Six years as solo Cellist in the Princes' Kapelle at Sondershausen, worked with the Bilse Orchestra for one year as first Cellist, and after that time had elapsed he took an engagement in the Grand Ducal Kapelle at Strelitz. Thence he was Summoned to Brunswick.

FERDINAND BUCHLER is also an excellent pupil of Menter's, born on March 17, 1817, at Darmstadt, where his father was Grand Ducal chamber musician. As his first instructor he had the Darmstadt Concertmaster, AUGUST DANIEL MANGOLD, born in July, 1775, at Darmstadt. He was a very distinguished artist on his instrument, of the Romberg school, and belonged to the Darmstadt orchestra from 1814 until his death, which happened in 1842. Buchler got on well under Mangold's training, but went, in order to perfect himself, to Jos. Menter, whom be had met during the winter of 1888- 1839, at the Munich Quartet Soirees, when he had undertaken a concert tour to Vienna. Having returned to Darmstadt he again found an appointment in the band there to which he had belonged previous to his absence in Munich, and was named first Cellist. An injured arm, which was never entirely cured, compelled Buchler to withdraw from playing in public as a Soloist, though he still continued as a chamber music player. In 1881, after forty-six years' service, he was pensioned.

Buehler pursued his theoretical studies under the guidance of the Darmstadt Cantor, Rinck. They enabled him to compose a few cello pieces which maybe favourably distinguished from amongst others. This is especially the case with regard to his five Studies ; they are of value particularly for the purposes of teaching, and consequently are admitted into many music Schools. Besides these, he wrote two pieces for four Violoncellos, and transcribed also three pieces from Alessandro Stradella's Cantatas. At present there are now in the press arrangements of twenty-fivo pieces of ancient and Modern masters with the title "Bunte Reihe."

VALENTIN MULLER, born on February 14, 1830, at Munster, in Westphalia, studied with Menter, and continued under Servais, in Brussels, in 1848. During his many years' residence in the Belgian capital, he performed for some time the functions of Deputy Professor at the Conservatoire. In 1858 he betook himself to Paris and filled the place of Chevillard (see among the Belgian cellists) in the Maurin Quartet. Ten years later he accepted a post at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, where he worked as member of the Quartet of the Museum Society, and as master at the Hoch Conservatoire.

JOSEPH WERNER, born on June 25, 1837, at Wurzburg, was, in 1862, Eleve of the Munich Conservatoire, and educated himself there as Violoncellist under Menter's direction. In the year 1867 he went to Dresden to Fr. Grutzmacher in order to become better acquainted with his method of instruction. After he had been solo cellist in the Court Kapelle at Munich, he became teacher at the music school, and later on he received the title of Royal Chamber Musician and Professor, which proves that he was particularly esteemed in the music world of Munich.

In compositions Werner published a Quartet for four Violoncellos, Studies, Etudes, Caprices, Solos, a book of Songs, as well as an instruction book, with Piano accompaniment, under the title of "Practical Violoncello School." With regard to this the Munich Allgemeine Zeitung, of September 12, 1886, remarks "Concerning this School, which is entirely devoid of theory--i.e. thoroughly practical-there exist a whole list of witnesses from celebrated authorities of that branch of Art, such as C. Davidoff, in St. Petersburg, Jos. Rheinberger, Louis Abel, and so forth, as well as many recommendations (from the Bavarian Ministry of Instruction) and acknowledgments in the musical periodicals of the time on the subject. All are unanimous that the above-named work must be considered in every way the best instruction book amongst those of the highestrank." The Cello School of Werner has gone through five editions already since its appearance.

Amongst Werner's numberless pupils we can only here cite HEINRICH SCHUBEL, at Carlsruhe; H. SCHONCHEN, in Munich; EMIL HERBECK, at St. Petersburg; FRL. MARIE GEIST and CARL EBNER, in Munich. The last-named artist, born on November 6, 1857, in Deggendorf, near Munich, is Royal Bavarian Chamber Musician, and takes part in the Trio Soirees, which are held annually with the cooperation of Bussmayer and Walter, in Munich. His Violoncello compositions, published as Op. 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 14, belong to the Salon genre.

Meiningen possessed a very distinguished Violoncellist in GUSTAVE KNOOP, who was born at Gottingen in 1805, and was member of the Meiningen Court orchestra. He must have been, in regard to beauty of tone, a successful rival of Romberg. It is related of him that he only married in order to get into his possession a valuable Violoncello which belonged to his wife; that soon after the wedding he set out on a journey with the instrument, and did not return home again. It is a fact that Knoop went to North America in 1843, and on Decem- ber 25, 1849, he ended his life at Philadelphia.

Of Knoop's pupils two are worth mentioning: Grabau and Mollenhauer. JOHAN ANDREAS GRABAU, born October 19, 1809, had, after benefiting by Knoop's instruction, Fr. Kummer as his master for a time. He chose Leipsic as his settled residence, but only worked at his vocation until his marriage, which made it possible for him to pursue music for his pleasure only. He remained, however, until his death, which occurred in August, 1886, a member of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. Grabau was less occupied with solo than with quartet playing, in which he was a much esteemed performer.

HEINRICH MOLLENHAUER, born on September 10, 1825, at Erfurt, was from his fourth year taught piano and violin playing, and when only a half-grown boy he made, with his brothers, under his father's guidance, a concert tour through Germany. He later devoted himself, under Knoop's direction, to Violoncello playing with great success. Mollenhauer belonged for three years, from 1853, to the Royal band at Stockholm, and then turned to New York. After he had travelled through the North American States as a Concert giver, he settled down, in 1867, at Brooklyn, and founded there a music school.

In the sphere of chamber music the best performer was the Cellist of the formerly famous MULLER STRING QUARTET, whose name was THEODORE. He was born on September 27, 1802, in Brunswick, and died there on May 22, 1875. He is described as the very soul of the Quartet Band, which with his brothers Carl (1st Violin), Georg (2nd Violin), and Gustave (Tenor), he so carefully kept together for so many years, the most brilliant period of which was from 1831-1855. During this time the brothers Muller undertook journeys into Germany, Holland, Denmark, and Russia, which were crowned with fame. They were also heard in Paris.

As is known, the Muller String Quartet was continued by the sons of Charles, the eldest of the brothers, who belonged as Concert Master to the Ducal Kapelle of Brunswick. The Violoncellist of the junior Quartet Band was-

WILLIAM MULLER, born on June 1, 1834, in Brunswick. He had his uncle, Theodore, as his master. After he had been working with his brothers in the Meiningen orchestra, as well as in Wiesbaden and Rostock, he entered the Berlin Court Kapelle as solo cellist, and also undertook the Cello instruction in the Royal High School for Music. In this position he remained three years, when he went to America. From that time there is no more account of him.

His pupil, EUGEN SANDOW, born on September 11, 1856, in Berlin, occupied himself from his sixth to his eighth year, under the direction of his father, with violin, playing; gave it up however in favour of the Violoncello, and had as his next teacher the royal chamber musician, A. Rohne. In 1870 he was taken into the High School for Music, and was there, from 1873 to 1876, Muller's pupil. In April of the year 1879 ensued his appointment as Chamber Musician in the Royal band.

Since the beginning of the present century Hamburg has been distinguished by excellent cellists. Foremost must be brought forward here-

JOHANN NIKOLAUS PRELL. He was born on November 6, 1773, in Hamburg, and earned the thanks of the musical world there especially by the institution of regular Quartet Academies. He died on March 18, 1849. His son-

AUGUST CHRISTIAN PRELL, under Romberg's direction, whose last pupil he was, reached a high degree of art. An extremely beautiful and grand style of playing lent his performance a classic stamp. Already at twelve years old he could perform in public. Four years later the post of Chamber Musician in Meiningen was offered to him, and in 1824 he received a summons to Hanover as first Cellist of the Hofkapelle there, to which he belonged until February 1, 1869, when he went into retirement. He was born on August 1, 1805, and died on September 3, 1885, in Hanau. His fine Amati Violoncello passed into the possession of Grutzmacher.

In GEORG EDUARD GOLTERMANN, born on August 19, 1824, at Hanover, A. Ch. Prell formed a distinguished Cellist. He received the last touch from Joseph Menter during his two years' residence in Munich (1847-1849). He there also had instruction in composition from Lachner. After he had made some journeys from 1850-1862, he became music director in Wurzburg, but remained there only a year, for he was summoned, in 1858, to be Second Kapellmeister at the Frankfort Theatre, and became in 1854 first Director. Goltermann has also made himself eminent as a composer for his instrument. For the Violoncello, besides seven Concertos, he wrote a tolerable list of Drawing-room Pieces, which have received a considerable degree of favour.

Two other famous Hamburg Cellists are the BROTHERS LEE. The elder, whose Christian name was Sebastian, was born on December 24, 1805, in Hamburg, and was educated by Prell, the father. At twenty-five years of age he made his first debut as solo player in his native town, as well as in Leipsic, and then undertook a journey, by Cassel and Frankfort, to Paris, where he arrived in April, 1832. He was heard then with approbation in the Theatre Italien. In 1836 he went to London, and again returned to Paris, in order to join, as solo cellist, in the orchestra of the "Grand Opera." He devoted himself to this work from 1887-1868, when he returned to Hamburg, and died there on January 4, 1887. Seb. Lee published a considerable number of compositions for his instrument. Amongst them are Divertissements, Fantasias, Vaxiations, Etudes, as well as a great number of easy and more difficult Duets, of which three books, under the title of "Ecole du Violoncelliste a l'usage du Conservatoire de Paris," have been published.

Two scholars of Seb. Lee worthy of mention are BOCKMANN and BIELER.

Ferdinand Bockmann, born January 28, 1843, at Hamburg, enjoyed Lee's instruction; and then Magnus Klitz, who was at the time first Cellist at the Hamburg StadtTheatre, was his master. In the autumn of 1861 he found an appointment in the Dresden Court band, and was then, for a time, Kummer's pupil. Bockmann is a clever Violoncellist, who made himself known extensively by the editing of old Violoncello music.

AUGUST BIELER, born on May 9, 1863, at Hamburg, began his Cello studies under Lee, in his fourteenth year, and continued them in Leipsic, where he went in January, 1879, to be under Karl Schroder; at Easter, in 1881, he was received into the Sondershausen band, of which he has been first Cellist since 1885. He is at the same time giving instruction on his instrument at the Conservatoire of Sondershausen. Bieler, who is possessed of a remarkable technique, has distinguished himself both as a solo and quartet player. His tone is powerful and full of energy, but, at the same time, flexible and melodious, his manner of rendering full of expression and extremely musical.

Lee's younger brother, Louis, who is reputed to have had great skill in bowing, was born in Hamburg in 1819. He also undertook several journeys, during which he appeared at Leipsic, Cassel, Frankfort, Paris, and Copenhagen. He published and wrote but very few cello compositions; amongst them, "Trois Pieces gracieuses," with piano accompaniment, must have a prominent place.

Finally, another much valued Violoncellist of Hamburg, ALBERT GOWA, must be mentioned, who obtained his education in the Leipsic Music School, but on the Violoncello especially shared the instruction of F. Grutzmacher and Davidoff. He made himself advantageously known by his public appearances, not only in German towns, but also in Copenhagen and London; accepted an engagement from 1867-1868 at the Philharmonic Society in his native town, and at the expiration of this he was appointed solo cellist at the Buckeburg Court; he then returned to Hamburg, where he is still living and working. He was born on April 14, 1843.

Some other German distinguished Violoncellists of modern times are Ripfel, Gross, Bockmuhl, Neruda, and Alwin Schroder. KARL RIPFEL was a character, and moreover in his youth was a so-called piano phenomenon, until the Minister of Baden, de Touche, persuaded him to devote himself to Cello playing, and himself gave him instruction. In regard to the technical branch of his art he made great progress, but he was so nervous that he could never make up his mind, except during his youth, to appear in public. His manner of rendering must have been bizarre. Nevertheless he was a distinguished orchestra player; assisted by an extraordinary memory he was able to play the cello part in the opera without music on an occasion when his colleague would not turn over the page at the right moment. He belonged to the Frankfort Theatre orchestra for forty-five years. His grave has the inscription: "Carl Ripfel, of Mannheim, died March 8, 1876, at the age of seventy-seven years." He must accordingly have been born in the year 1799. In the "Signalen fur die Musikalische Welt," of March 19, 1876, the following is asserted of him: "Although not known in an extensive circle, he was esteemed by Bernhard Romberg to be the greatest master of technique on his instrument, which be was at last able to manipulate almost as well as Paganini."

Ripfel was also a composer, but never published any of his compositions. When the Violin virtuoso, Jean. Becker, asked him to let him have one of his string trios, he was roughly refused.

JOHANN BENJAMIN GROSS, born at Elbing, on September 12, 1809, went in his youth to Berlin in order to devote himself there to the study of the Cello. It was not long before be found a position in the orchestra of the Konigstadt Theatre, which he gave up in 1831. He now turned to Leipsic, was often heard there, even in the Gewandhaus, and in 1833 joined the Liphart String Quartet, at Dorpat, at the head of which was Ferdinand David. In 1835 he was engaged for the Imperial Theatre in St. Petersburg as first Cellist, where he continued until 1847. He then returned with a pension to Germany, but soon appeared in St. Petersburg again, the Grand Duke Michael having summoned him to his neighbourhood. He did not long enjoy the pleasures of this intercourse, for on September 1, 1848, he died of cholera. Of his compositions, the number of which extend to about forty, there appeared for the Violoncello a Concerto, Etudes, Duets, Variations, and a variety of Drawing-room Pieces. He wrote also a Concerto for Piano and Violoncello, as well as a Sonata for these two instruments.

ROBERT EMIL BOCKMUHL, born 1820, in Frankfort-on-the- Maine, died on November 3, 1881, was a clever Violoncellist, and an industrious composer for his instrument. He published about seventy works, consisting of "Fantasias," Variations, Divertissements, and Rondos on opera themes or national,songs. Also an extensive book of studies under the title: "Etudes pour le developpement du mecanisme du violoncelle; adoptees pour l'etude elementaire de cet instrument au Conservatoire royal de musique de Bruxelles, et an Conservatoire de musique de Baviere e Munich" (Op. 17), in five parts. At the beginning of his fiftieth year, Bockmuhl settled in Diisseldorf. At that time Robert Schumann was composing his Violoncello Concerto, for which he solicited Bockmuhl's advice in regard to the technical questions.

FRANZ NERUDA, born on December 3, 1843, at Brunn, occupied himself from his fifth year with Violin, and from his twelfth year with Violoncello playing, to which latter he eventually devoted bimself exclusively. In the year 1855 he appeared publicly for the first time at Ischl. He then made concert journeys in Germany and Russia, during which he attained his twentieth year. In 1864 he was appointed to the Copenhagen Court Kapelle, to which he belonged for twelve years. During this time he was frequently heard as soloist in Copenhagen, as well as in London, where he often took Piatti's place at the Popular Concerts. He also performed at Concerts in Manchester and Liverpool. Latterly he appeared at Vienna. Neruda studied under his father, although he was indebted to Servais for many good hints. He published about thirty of his Violoncello compositions, amongst them a Violoncello Concerto, and some little pieces for Cello with Piano accompaniment. It may be further remarked that he is brother to the famous Violinist, Wilma Neruda.

ALWIN SCHRODER, brother to Karl Schroder, was born at Neuhaldensleben in 1855, where his father was music director. He devoted himself to Violoncello playing only, after he had pursued from the seventh year of his age piano, violin, and tenor playing, and had attained to remarkable proficiency in them. In his youth he was engaged in several orchestras in Berlin as tenor performer. During a visit to his father's house he conceived a great desire to take up the Violoncello, and practised on his own account the Cello solo in the Introduction to Rossini's "Tell" Overture. He succeeded so well that his brother Karl, to whom he played it, urged him to occupy himself further with the Violoncello, which he did. In 1875 he had reached such a degree of proficiency that he was engaged in the autumn of the same year as first Cellist for the Liebig Orchestra. This position he exchanged for one in the Fliegen Band. After he had been a member of the Laube Kapelle, he chose Leipsic as his place of residence in 1880, and occasionally took his brother Karl's work in the orchestra. When the latter accepted the post of Royal Kapellmeister in Sondershausen, he was appointed in his brother's stead, together with Klengel as first Cellist of the Gewandhaus and Theatre Orchestra, as well as teacher in the Conservatoire. Besides this, he is permanent member of the Peter String Quartet. He received the title of Chamber Virtuoso from the reigning Prince of Sondershausen. His playing is famous for its clever technique, fine tone, perfect accuracy, and most expressive rendering. He has been heard in the capitals of Germany, Belgium, and Russia with remarkable success.


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