Cello Playing in 19th Century Germany
Part One

GERMAN violoncello playing had, during the second half of last century, found unusual opportunities for expansion in consequence of the demand for numberless competent artists for the various princely households, as well as for the larger towns. Amongst the cellists mentioned in the second part of this work, there were already some specially prominent personages to distinguish. The branch of art, however, to which this book is devoted first received a really important and sustained impulse through means of BERNHARD ROMBERG.

This artist acquired for German violoncello playing a significance similar to that which Louis Spohr gained for German violin playing, only with this difference-that the latter master was far superior to the former as a composer. While certain violin compositions of Spohr (not to speak of his other works), on account of their intrinsic worth, are calculated to appear in concert programmes, and will presumably do so in the future, the cello pieces by Romberg have already for some time completely disappeared from them. Yet they have, from a scholastic point of view, proved to be of value even to the present day. In regard to this, what Romberg did for the cultivation and perfecting, as well as the fine manipulation of his instrument, merits for him the appellation of founder of the German school of violoncello playing. His Concertos and concert pieces have been of more importance, however, for taking such a direction than his violoncello school, which by no means belongs to the best instruction books of the kind, and is a proof that a man can be a distinguished teacher-and Romberg was in any case this-without having the capacity for the production of a thoroughly satisfactory instruction book, The examples and music pieces in Romberg's violoncello school are indeed excellent, but some of the maxims which he enunciates seem peculiar, and he goes too much into extraneous matter, instead of bringing forward the more substantial principles with the necessary precision and accuracy.

It is noteworthy that Romberg advocated a simplified notation for violoncello music. Primarily (besides the bass clef), in Italy and Germany, only the tenor clef was used, and the alto clef in France. But as the compass of violoncello playing was more and more extended up to the high parts of the scale, by the use of the thumb positions, keys used for the discant and violin were added. Boccherini, for the notation of many of his compositions, made use altogether of five clefs, sometimes indeed in one and the same piece-as, for example, at the opening Allegro of his Concerto (C major). There was nothing arbitrary in this procedure. Boccherini had far more in view the object of giving to the player starting points for the finger positions to be used in each case. In his later compositions, however, he abandoned this, as the use of so many different clefs had its inconveniences; and he restricted himself to the use of the bass, tenor, and violin clef. This notation was subsequently generally accepted, particularly also by Romberg, and is still in use up to the present time. In opposition to the earlier favourite manner of writing the notes-by the use of the violin clef an octave too high for the violoncello, as is the case in Mozart's and Beethoven's compositions-Boccherini, by the application of the clefs mentioned, wrote everything as it would sound. By this means he gained the advantage that he was not obliged to make so much use of ledger lines in the writing of his passages-which were continually moving in the soprano part as he must have done if he had followed the custom of his contemporaries and had adhered to the higher system of notation. It is readily understood why Romberg in his cello school should declare himself in favour of the change introduced by Boccherini, for he also, with special predilection, made use of the higher regions of the fingerboard for his playing; wherefore it was said of him that his handling of the violoncello was often after the manner of the violin. From this point of view it is thoroughly rational that Romberg, in regard to notation, should follow the example given by Boccherini. In later times the too frequent and continuous use of the soprano clef-in which a broad, energetic volume of tone, full of expression, is nearly excluded-has been abandoned without, however, being neglected entirely; while to the most beautiful and effective clef-namely, the tenor has been accorded its right place.

BERNHARD ROMBERG was the son of the bassoon player, Anton Romberg, of some note in his time, and was born on November 11, 1767, in the village of Dinklage, near the little Prussian town of Quakenbruek. It is unknown whom he had as teacher for the violoncello. It was probably an orchestra musician in Munster, to which place his parents had removed their home. In any case, Romberg's talent caused him to make the most of it, for before he had passed his youth he was able to undertake with his cousin, Andreas Romberg (This artist was a violinist, and was born on April 27, 1767, at Vechts, in Oldenburg, and died on November 21, 1821, as Hofkapellmeister, in Gotha.), who was about the same age, a concert tour which led them through Holland, and was extended to Paris, where they were both heard with such success in the house of Baxon Bagge (Bagge was a Prussian Chamberlain, who then lived in Paris, built a house there, and acted the part of an art patron. He died there in 1791), that they were engaged in 1787 for the "Concert Spirituel." After his return from Paris Romberg devoted himself eagerly to progressive studies, and at the same time worked in the orchestra at Munster.

Munster belonged then, as is known, to the Electorate of Cologne. The Elector Maximilian Franz, who on his accession to his dominions (April 27, 1784) resided often in the Westphalian town, had his attention drawn to the two Romberg artists, and engaged them for his Royal band at Bonn. The announcement of the appointment bears the date of December 19, 1790.

When the Elector, in the autumn of the following year, went to reside at Mergentheim, then the seat of the German order-whose Grand Master he was-he caused about twenty members of his band to follow him from Bonn. Amongst them, besides Beethoven, who in addition to his office as organist was also tenor player at the Court, were also the two Rombergs. In one of the musical entertainments which took place in the apaxtments of the Elector, Bernhard Romberg was heard in a Concerto. Boszler's Musical Correspondence of the year 1791 contains a notice (This notice is by the Court Chaplain of Hohenlohe in Kirschberg, Carl Ludwig Junker.) of it in which is said: "Romberg, the younger, combines in his violoncello playing extraordinary rapidity with charming rendering; this rendering is the more marked and decided when he is heard in connection with the greater number of violoncellists. The tone which he produces from his instrument is, moreover-especially in the expressive parts-extremely clear, firm, and penetrating. Taking into consideration the difficulty of the instrument, a thoroughly marked purity of tone, in the extraordinarily quick renderina of the Allegro, must be attributed to him in the highest degree. Yet this after all is mere mechanical readiness; the connoisseur has another standard by which he measures the greatness of artists; and this is, the manner of playing, the perfection of expression or the spiritual interpretation. Once on this point, the connoisseur will pronounce in favour of the expressive Adagio. It is impossible more deeply to penetrate into the more delicate hues of feelingimpossible to colour them with more variety-to enhance them, moreover, by greater light and shade-impossible to hit more exactly the very tones through which this feeling has utterance, tones which appeal more directly to the heart than Romberg succeeds in doing in his Adagio."

How acquainted he is with all the beauties of detail, which lie in the nature of the piece in the peculiar kind of expression to be given, and for which the composer has no signs for recognition? What effects he is able to produce by the crescendo of his tone, swelling up to the strongest fortissimo, and then again by its dying away to a scarcely audible pianissimo!!"

From this enthusiastic announcement we must conclude that Romberg's playing at that time-he was in his twentyfourth year-showed already a high degree of perfection. It is therefore quite conceivable that he cherished the wish of obtaining a position in life adequate to the merit of his performances, for in Bonn he received only a yearly salary of 600 florins, and, moreover, the existence of the Cologne Electorate, the complete dissolution of which was accomplished in the autumn of the year 1794, had fallen into a very doubtful condition from the time of the appearance of the revolutionary army on the Rhine (October, 1792).

Romberg therefore accepted with his cousin, Andreas, at Easter, 1794, an engagement at the Schroder Theatre in Hamburg, but he did not long remain there. Three years later they undertook together a concert journey into Italy, gave concerts on their return at Vienna, supported by Beethoven, and again betook themselves to Hamburg, whence, after a two years' residence, Bernhard Romberg visited London. He next travelled in Portugal and Spain, in 1800 returned again to Paris, and performed this time at the concerts of " La Rue de Clery" and the "Theatre des Victoires" with such great success that he became teacher at the Conservatoire. Romberg does not, however, appear to have felt comfortable in this position, for after two years he withdrew from it and again turned to Hamburg. In 1805 he responded to an invitation to be solo cellist at the Berlin Hoffkapelle. The calamities of war, which broke over Prussia in the following year, compelled him once more to become a wanderer. He next visited the Austrian States. After the conclusion of the peace of Tilsit, he found himself again in Berlin, remained there up to the year 1810, and then undertook a journey through Silesia, Poland, and Russia. At St. Petersburg he met with Ferdinand Ries, and in conjunction with him gave concerts in the Southern provinces of the Czar's dominions. The artists wished to arrange a visit to Moscow, but were prevented by the memorable burning of the Kremlin which compelled the French army to retreat. They then turned to Stockholm, and from thence went to Copenhagen and Hamburg. Here they separated-Ries went to London, which he reached in March, 1818, and Romberg took his way by Bremen to Holland and Belgium. From the latter country he again visited Paris for a short time. Returned to Germany, Romberg prepared for a second journey to Russia. On this occasion be lingered two years at Moscow. After he had been, from 1815-1819, in the service of the Berlin Court, he chose Hamburg as his settled residence. Wherever Romberg played his highly finished performances excited great enthusiasm. In this his violoncello compositionswhich were entirely in accordance with the taste of that period in a virtuoso point of view, and which, moreover, were distinguished by. their solid quality above all other cello compositions of the time-had a substantial share.

During his many journeys through European countries, Romberg had collected national airs, of which he availed himself in various ways for his compositions under different names. Amongst them are to be found Caprices on Swedish, Polish, Moldavian, Wallachian, and Spanish songs, as well as a "Fantaisie" on Norwegian and a "Rondo brilliant" on Polish melodies, besides four books of Variations on Russian national airs. He further wrote ten Concertos, three Concertinos, a Fantasia with orchestra, Polonaises, as well as Duets and Sonatas, with bass accompaniment for the cello. He was also very productive in the sphere of chamber music, and composed also for the stage. These last compositions have, however, not survived him, while, on the other hand, his cello pieces, as already noticed, maintain even at this time a certain value for teaching.

There have been certain famous artists who in advanced age, in spite of a considerable decay in their capacity for performance, have unwisely indulged the inclination of still endeavouring to attract admiration. Bernhard Romberg was one of these. In his seventy-third year he again had a desire to visit Paris in order-though not in public-to appear in artistic circle- as a solo player. The failure which he experienced appears to have had a prejudicial effect on his health, for he died soon after his return home, on August 13, 1841.

Romberg promoted the advancement of German violoncello playing chiefly by his activity as a soloist, and also by his compositions, for, on account of his many concert journeys, which led him sometimes in one direction and sometimes in another, he had not sufficient leisure for continuous and regular teaching. A few young artists, however, enjoyed the benefit of his instruction. Of these we will mention only here his nephew, Cyprian, and Julius Schapler. Some others will be noticed farther on.

CYPRIAN ROMBERG, born in 1807 (according to other accounts, 1810), in Hamburg, made himself known, after he had finished his studies, by his journeys in Germany and Austria, and was then a member of the Imperial band at St. Petersburg. In Hamburg, where he spent the last years of his life, he was, unfortunately, drowned while bathing in the Elbe in 1865.

JULIUS SCHAPLER was born on August 21, 1812, in Graudenz. (Not 1820 In the Hartz, as is elsewbere said.) He received his musical education in Berlin. B. Romberg was at first his master for the violoncello, on which also he received instruction from the pensioned chamber musician, Hausmann. After his education was concluded Schapler was heard as solo player in the Opera House at Berlin, as well as in the Gewandhaus at Leipsic, with great applause. He declined offers for engagements, which were in consequence proposed to him, as he wished to make himself known by concerts. Soon after however, when the position of solo player in the Court band of the Duke of Nassau was offered to him he accepted it. In Wiesbaden, besides his official duties, he was much occupied with composition. The fruits of it were not only several cello pieces, but also three greater chamber music worksnamely, a String Quartet, a Trio for piano and violoncello, as well as a Quintet for piano, violin, tenor violoncello, and contra-basso. These last compositions were all crowned with success. A warm and appreciative critique of the String Quartet appeared in 1842 from the pen of Robert Schumann, in his musical paper.

The unquiet year, 1848, caused the Duke of Nassau to dismiss the members of his Kapelle (without pensions). Schapler returned to his home and created for himself a lucrative field of work as music teacher in Thorn, to which he devoted himself for many years. At the present time he is living privately in Berlin.

Schapler belonged in his prime to the best violoncellists of Germany. With fine tone-rendering be had complete mastery over his instrument. Unfortunately, he did not succeed, after his departure from Wiesbaden, in obtaining a post worthy of his excellent performances.

While Bernhard Romberg was raising to a position of high honour the art of violoncello playing in Germany, several important centres were forming for it in Dresden and Vienna.

The Dresden Court, which had always done a great deal for music, was continually taking into consideration the means of attracting into its neighbourbood distinguished instrumentalists; and if for some time a succession of foreign, but specially Italian artists found a place there, a certain amount of gain was the result in connection with it-for the artist youth of Germany received thereby a progressive impulse to their own endeavours. The Dresden Court orchestra had already, in the last century, a distinguished reputation, and this was more and more enhanced by the continual influx of talented and highly gifted musicians. As regarded the violoncello especially, it gained not long after the beginning of our century an exemplary representative in DOTZAUER. From that time until the present day Dresden has remained an important centre for violoncello playing.

JUSTUS JOHANN FRIEDRICH DOTZAUER, born on January 20, 1783, at Haselrieth, near Hildburghausen, was the son of a minister there. Instructed early in music, he devoted himself to the piano, violin, and violoncello playing. The latter soon gained the ascendancy, and as the inclination for an artistic career showed itself decisively in him, his father sent him, in the year 1799, to Kriegk, at Meiningen, under whose direction he studied two years. After the expiration of that period he found a post in the Meiningen Kapelle until 1805, when he went to Leipsic, and from 1805-1811 he was a member of the orchestra.

From Leipsic he visited Berlin. Here he heard Romberg, with advantage for the pursuit of his studies. In the year 1811 he accepted an honourable position in the Dresden Court orchestra, to which he belonged, from 1821-1850, as first solo cellist. He then lived in retirement, which he enjoyed for ten years. He died in the place where he had successfully worked for so many years on March 6, 1860.

Dotzauer was also well-skilled in composition, and attempted it in various forms. He wrote an Opera, Overtures, Symphonies, a Mass, and several chamber pieces. All these productions have long been forgotten. Not so his violoncello works, which consist of nine Concertos, three Concertinos, two Sonatas with bass, Variations, Divertissements, Potpourris, and a great number of Duets, some of these at least are still prized as objects of study. This is especially the case with regard to his books of instruction, to which belong two violoncello schools (The first of these appeared at Schott's, in Mayence ; the other, for Elementary instruction," at Haslinger's, Vienna.), as well as a number of exercises of various kinds (Concerning Dotzauer's violoncello compositions, Philipp Roth's Guide to Violoncello Literature" may be consulted with special reference to their degree of difficulty.) Amongst these the most commendable on account of their excellence are the eighteen "Exercices d'une difficulte progressive" (Op. 120), for beginners (with the exception of the two last numbers), and the "Twenty-four Daily Studies,for the acquiring and keeping of Virtuosity." The latter work is in every respect by far the best of Dotzauer's many studies. He also published a School for Flageolet playing (Op. 141). His performances combined the gifts of great solidity and fascinating sweetness. Of his two sons, the younger, Carl Ludwig, devoted himself to the violoncello under the direction of his father. In 1820 he was member of the Hofkapelle, at Cassel. He was born on December 7, 1811, in Dresden.

Dotzauer was distinguished not only as an executant artist but also as a teacher. The most remarkable of his scholars are-Kummer, Schuberth, Voigt, and Drechsler.

FRIEDRICH AUGUST KUMMER was born on August 15, 1797, at Meiningen. His father, an accomplished oboist, belonged to the Ducal band there. At the beginning of the century he entered the Kofkapelle at Dresden, and here his son, who at first had taken up his father's instrument, became Dotzauer's pupil. When his education was completed on the violonceUo, Kummer should have been admitted into the Dresden Kofkapelle; but as there was just then no vacancy for his instrument he was obliged for a while to content himself with being received as oboist. This was in 1814. Three years ater he was enrolled among the cellists. By diligently prosecuted studies, Kummer gradually reached such a high degree of artistic cultivation that when Dotzauer was pensioned, he was appointed in his place as first violoncellist of the Royal band. In 1864 he celebrated his fiftieth Jubilee, and then gave himself up to his well-deserved retirement. During his long tenure of office he displayed a most extraordinary activity as soloist, quartet, and orchestra player, as well as teacher. In the latter capacity he worked both privately and at the Dresden Conservatoire, to which he belonged, until his death, which took place on May 22, 1879. At the same time he wrote a good deal for his instrument, a Concerto, two Concertinos, instructive Duets (some easy and others more difficult), Variations, Etudes, Caprices, Studies (amongst them, daily ones), diverse musical "Divertissements," which were formerly much in request amongst dilletanti, some of which are still used as subjects for the practice of youthful players. He also produced a violoncello school. It is at present the most generally used work of the kind, short and clear, though only extending to a moderate degree of difficulty; finally, Kummer published a useful compendium: "Repertorium and Orchestral Studies," containing important and difficult cello pieces from oratorios, symphonies, overtures, and operas. Kummer's playing bore the stamp of great precision and correctness, united to powerful and solid intonation. His technique was in every point thoroughly cultivated, but to acquire the 'finesses' of a virtuoso he was of too simple a nature, which was better calculated to occupy itself with the sphere of music in its intellectual aspect than in brilliant display. All that he produced on his instrument was most correct and defined, in which he was greatly assisted by his quiet and cautious temperament. He was unable indeed to raise himself to the height of poetical inspiration and unrestrained warmth of expression, though he never did violence to a good composition. His manner of rendering was always strictly objective and according to rule. Amongst Kummer's pupils Cossmann and Julius Goltermann are prominent.

BERNHARD COSSMANN, born on May 17, 1822, in Dessau, studied at first under Theodore Muller, the cellist of the formerly famous Muller String Quartet, at Brunswick, and then under Kummer. During the years 1840-1841 he worked in the orchestra of the Grand Opera in Paris, after which he went to London. In 1848 he was engaged as solo player for the Leipsic (Gewandhaus) Concert, in 1852 taken to Weimar by Franz Liszt, and in 1866 appointed teacher of cello playing to the Conservatoire at Moscow. From 1870 to 1878 Cossmann lived privately in Baden-Baden and only appeared to play at concerts. When the Conservatoire at Hoch was founded in 1878, the office of teacher of his instrument was entrusted to him, which post he now occupies. Cossmann belongs to the best cellists of the present time. He has a fine, distinct tone, manages the fingerboard with ease, and is not only a distinguished solo player but also an excellent quartet player. Amongst his compositions the most worthy of notice are a Concert piece with piano accompaniment, three "Fantasias" on Motifs from the "Freischutz," "Tell," and "Euryanthe," six Solos in two parts, a Swiss Melody and a Neapolitan Canzonet, three Pieces (Op. 8), Etudes de Concert (Op. 10), and Violoncello Studies.

JOHANN AUGUST GOLTERMANN, born on July 25, 1825, in Hamburg, after he had perfected himself under Kummer, was appointed to the Prague Conservatoire, to which he belonged from 1850 to 1862. In the latter year he exchanged this employment for that of first solo cellist in the Stuttgart orchestra. In 1870 he was pensioned, and on April 4,1876, he died. He was an able artist in his branch of it.

The next pupil of Dotzauer to be mentioned is CARL SCHUBERTH, born on February 25, 1811, in Magdeburg. He received at first, from a musician of his native town named Hesse, six years' instruction, and then repaired to Dresden to Dotzauer, with whom he remained two years. On his return home he made his debut with success as a soloist at a concert organised by Catalani, in Magdeburg. At the end of 1828 he undertook a concert tour to the North. The destination was Copenhagen, where, in the spring of 1829, he arrived and made a prolonged sojourn. Later on Schuberth occupied the position of first violoncellist at the Magdeburg Theatre, gave it up, however, in 1833, and undertook, in the autumn of the same year, a journey through Western Germany and Belgium. From the latter place he visited Paris. In the following year he went to Holland, and during the season of 1885 he was heard in London. Schuberth then went to St. Petersburg, where he found, as elsewhere, a brilliant reception, and immediately a permanent position, for he was not only named Director of the Imperial band, but also Inspector of the Music School affiliated to the Court Theatre and Director of Music at the University. He filled these posts until 1863, in which year death overtook him during a journey for the benefit of his health, on July 22, at Zurich. Schuberth's playing was exceedingly clever, but in expression more elegant and ornamental than impressive. His cello pieces give evidence of this, which, with the exception of a Concerto, belong to the description of so-called conversazione music; but they have not survived their author. Amongst his pupils the most remarkable is Carl Davidoff, the famous Russian cellist.

CARL LOUIS VOIGT, the third of Dotzauer's pupils above mentioned, was born on November 8, 1792 at Zeitz; he was the son of the organist at St. Thomas's Church, Leipsic, Joh. Georg Hermann Voigt. He played several instruments, and amongst others the violoncello also, on which his grandfather, Johann Heinr. Viktor Rose, had given him instruction at Quedlinburg. Besides his work as organist, he played the violoncello with the orchestra of the theatre in the Gewandhaus at Leipsic. He imparted to his son what he knew and was able to do as cellist, who, in order to perfect himself, studied under Dotzauer's direction some time, and in 1811 took the latter's place in the Leipsic Orchestra, to which he had belonged since the winter of 1809-1810. Voigt filled this post until his death, which took place on February 21, 1881. His. violoncello compositions extant, consisting of Sonatas, Duets, Exercises, and a diversity of Drawing-room Pieces, are feeble, but may be used for instruction-as, for example, the three Sonatas (Op. 40).

CARL DRECHSLER, finally, born on May 27,1800, at Camenz, in the kingdom of Saxony, early studied violoncello playing. He began his career as a military musician at Dessau. At the same time he assisted as cellist in the orchestra there. Through the recommendation of Friedrich Schneider, who discerned the young man's talent, the Duke of Dessau granted him the means, in 1824, of placing himself under Dotzauer's direction for further cultivation. After this he undertook a long concert tour. The great success of this caused his name to be well known, with the result that, in the year 1826, he was permanently established in the orchestra at Dessau, with the title of Concertmaster.

Drechsler's performances were characterised as much by faultless purity and refinement as by feeling and tasteful rendering. His playing was not powerful, but pleasing by its grace and delicacy. He was everywhere received with welcome, and, as he responded to all that was demanded as an excellent leader of his instrument in the orchestra, he was an eagerly sought guest at all musical festivals. After he was pensioned, in 1871, he chose Dresden as his residence. He did not, however, long enjoy the amenities of retirement, for he died in the year 1873.

His son, Louis, born on October 5, 1822, at Dessau, formed himself under the direction of his father as a clever violoncellist. He lived and worked as such for a long time in Edinburgh.

Drechsler, the father, was an excellent teacher. Through him Dessau was for a time affiliated to the Dresden school of cello playing, in which he educated excellent artists, amongst whom the best known are Lindner and Grutzmacher.

AUGUST LINDNER, (Not to be confounded with the excellent cellist, Wilhelm Lindner, who was Chamber Musician of the Grand Duchy of Baden, and died on lugust 19, 1887) born on October 29, 1820, at Dessau, after he had completed his studies, was appointed, in the year 1837, to the Kofkapelle at Hanover, to which he belonged until his death (June, 1878). He enjoyed the reputation of a distinguished violoncellist. Of his compositions we must mention a Concerto (Op. 34), Nine Drawing-room Pieces (Op. 18), Six Fantasias (Op. 38), Divertissements for young cellists (two parts, Op. 32), Concert au Salon (two parts), Three Paraphrases on Motifs from Meyerbeer's' "Huguenots" and "Le Prophete," as well as Verdi's "Ernani" (Op. 12), and a long list of Opera Potpourris. Besides these, Lindner produced a new edition of L. Duport's "Essai sur le doigter du Violoncelle."

His pupil, BERNHARD THIEME, born on June 11, 1854, in Altenburg, began his musical career after he left school, under the town musician at Penig, in Saxony, and when at eighteen he returned home from there, he received cello instruction, for a short time, from the Kapellmeister, Toller. He very soon found employment in the Berlin Orchestra. He then went, as first cellist, with the Fliegen Orchestra, for a summer, to St. Petersburg, in the same capacity; a few months later he entered the Bilckeburg Kapelle. He was subsequently occupied in the Hofkapelle at Hanover for two years, and during this period he enjoyed the excellent teaching of Aug. Lindner. Since 1879 he has filled the place of solo cellist in the town orchestra at Baden-Baden.

The Dresden school of cello playing, founded by Dotzauer, and continued by Kummer, received a still greater forward impulse through FRIEDRICH WILHELM LUDWIG GRUTZMACHER.

This far-famed artist, whose efficiency was a great ornament to the Dresden " Kapellinstitute," was born on March 1, 1832, in Dessau, and after he had learned from his father, who was an esteemed member of the Ducal band, the elements of music, benefited from the instruction of Carl Drechsler. Thus the teaching of Dotzauer, whose pupil Carl Drechsler was at the place whence it had emanated, was further developed-a most valuable gain for the artistic life of the Court of Saxony.

Grutzmacher came to Leipsic in the year 1848, fundamentally well prepared for his vocation, and entered a private choral society in order to be thoroughly conversant with the necessary routine in orchestra playing. He was soon invited to take part in the Gewandhaus and the Euterpe Concerts. In the latter he made his debut at the beginning of February, 1849, as solo player, with Variations by Franchomme. The first violoncellist of the Leipsic Gewandhaus was a certain Wittmann. As, however, his performances did not fully satisfy, Bernhard Cossmann was engaged in 1848 for the solo parts and for the cello teaching at the Conservatoire. Then when Cossmann responded to the invitation to go to Weimar, Grutzmacher took his place, although at the same time he was a regular member of the opera orchestra. From that period he was the chief representative of his instrument in Leipsic. Not the less however did he strive indefatigably to progress in his Art, keeping unceasingly in view the goal of perfection. How well he succeeded in reaching it is proved by the dominant position which he gained and maintained. Julius Rietz, who was himself an able violoncellist, and had had during his Directorship in Leipsic many opportunities of observing Grutzmacher's extraordinary executive capacity, rated him very highly, and was in the habit of admiringly expressing himself with regard to the incomparable, exemplary and thorough training of his left hand. It is, therefore, the more intelligible that be made him every offer possible in order to gain him for the Dresden Hofkapelle, after he had undertaken its direction. This happened in 1860, and in the same year 6rutzmacher was summoned to Dresden as Kummer's successor. From this time he travelled through Germany, Holland, England, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, and Russia, and was received everywhere with triumph; but he was also distinguished in many ways at the place of his work. In course of time he received from the King of Saxony the title of Chamber Virtuoso, later he was appointed Royal Concert leader, and on his twenty-fifth jubilee of service he was honoured far and wide in manifold ways.

In Grutzmacher's playing were happily united the endowments of a finished mastery of complex technical difficulties and delicate manner of expression, more especially in the rendering of Cantilena. He is not only a virtuoso of the first rank, but also an excellent interpreter of classical chamber music. For this latter qualification the foundation had already been laid by a careful musical education under his father's roof, to which Friedrich Schneider had substantially contributed. He pursued his theoretical studies under the direction of this master.

Grutzmacher published a great number of compositions. Those which have had the widest circulation are the two Concertos, Op. 10 (A minor) and Op. 46 (E minor); the Hungarian Fantasia (Op. 7), the Nocturne (Op. 82), the Scherzo (Op. 30), the Transcriptions of Classical Music (Op. 60), the "Daily Studies," the Twenty-four Studies (Op. 88), as well as three Songs with Violoncello obbligato (Op. 50). He added considerably to the enrichment of violoncello literature by his. transcriptions of Haydn's, Mozart's, Beethoven's, and Schumann's Sonatas, as well as of two of Beethoven's Violin Romances, and of Schumann's "Kinderscenen." He further arranged for the Violoncello the Thirty-six "Songs without Words" of Mendelssohn, about twelve selected Piano pieces by Schumann and Chopin, the Violin Sonata (Op. 19) and the Romance (Op. 44) by Rubinstein, the "Pensees fugitives" by Steph. Heller and Ernst, and many other pieces of music. Grutzmacher also brought out new editions of classical and modern compositions, with the addition of careful annotations. We must here mention the two Gamba Sonatas of Joh. Seb. Bach, as well as his six Violoncello Suites; a Gamba Sonata by Handel and by Phil. Em. Bach, six Boccherini Sonatas with the addition of a piano accompaniment, a Sonata by Bonifazio Asioli, some Violoncello Compositions of Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Chopin; a "Theme Russe varie" by Ferd. Ries, the ten Concertos and six easy Instruction Pieces for Violoncello by Bernhard Romberg, as well as twelve Exercises by Dotzauer (Op. 107), with the addition of a second violoncello part.

In a special manner Grutzmacher is deserving of merit by his highly successful method of instruction in violoncello playing. Even during his active work in Leipsic he formed several excellent cellists, whose names are Leopold Grutzmacher, Kahnt, Wilfert, Hilpert, and Hegar.

LEOPOLD GRUTZMACHER, a younger brother of the cello master already mentioned, born on September 4, 1835, at Dessau, was taught cello playing first by Drechsler and then by his brother, while Fr. Schneider conducted his theoretical education.

Leopold Grutzmacher belonged successively to the Theatre and Gewandhaus orchestras in Leipsic, to the Court band at Schwerin, to the orchestra of the German National Theatre in Prague, and to the Meiningen Court band. From the latter he was called, in 1876, to Weimar, as solo cellist to the Grand Ducal Kapelle. Like his brother he was also distinguished by the title of "Chamber Virtuoso" and "Concertmaster." He published for the violoncello two Concertos (Op. 6 and 9) and several smaller, pleasing, and well worked out compositions.

Leopold Grutzmacher educated his son, whose Christian name was Friedrich, as a cellist. He has already afforded agreeable proofs of his executive capacity in his public appearances, and is a member of the Weimar Royal orchestra.

MORITZ KAHNT, born on April 27, 1836, in Lebnitz (near Leipsic), received instruction in his parents' house from his seventh to his fourteenth year not only on the violin and the piano, but also on several wind instruments. Later he devoted himself by preference to violoncello playing, in which he was Grutzmacher's pupil for three years in the Leipsic Conservatoire. During the same time he received instruction at the above-named Institution in composition and the organ. From the year 1855 he has been first cellist of the Concert Orchestra, as well as teacher in the school of music at Basle. Besides his post as organist he superintends the direction of a Musical Union there.

BRUNO WILIFERT, born on July 26, 1886, at Schmalzgrube, in Saxony, began his education first as violinist under the town musical director at Kirschberg (in the neighbourbood of Zwickau), then went with him to Glauchau, and there began cello playing. Twice a week he journeyed, with his violoncello under his arm, to the town of Zwickau, three hours distant, in order to get instruction from the violoncellist, Fr. Herrmann, a pupil of F. A. Kummer, who belonged to the town orchestra. Later on he became Grutzmacher's pupil at Leipsic. By his unceasing industry Wilfert succeeded so well that in the year 1864 he was appointed solo cellist to the German Theatre at Prague. Since the foundation of the Prague Musical Union (1876) he has belonged as a co-operating member to the Quartet Society. The cello compositions of Wilfert which have appeared are Two Pieces (Op. 1), Hungarisch (Op. 2), Fantasia on Airs from the "Masked Ball" (Op. 3), Two Drawing-room Pieces (Op. 4), and a "Nocturne" for four Violoncellos (Op. 5).

FRIEDRICH HILPERT, born March 4, 1841, at Nuremburg, went to the Leipsic Conservatoire, was there pupil of Grutzmacher, and having finished his studies found an appointment in the Karlsruhe orchestra. He then went to Zurich, where he made the acquaintance of the distinguished violinist, Jean Becker (who died on October 10, 1884) ; with him, in 1866, in connection with the Italians Masi and Chiostri as second violin and tenor, he founded that artistic union which, as the "Florentine String Quartet," attained to such great reputation on account of its excellent performances. In 1875 Hilpert separated from his Quartet companions in order to take the place, hitherto filled by Rever, which had been offered to him in the Grand Opera and the Conservatoire at Vienna. After the lapse of a year, he gave up this appointment again, and became, under the title of Chamber Virtuoso, a member of the Meiningen Hofkapelle, and was employed as soloist in the concert tours under the direction of Hans v. Bulow. When he relinquished this undertaking, he entered the Royal orchestra at Munich, to which he Still belongs. Hilpert is reckoned one of the best German cellists of the present day. The publication arranged by him of a collection of "classical studies" by Couperin, Rameau, Bach, and Martini are worthy of notice.

EMIL HEGAR also, born on January 3, 1843, at Basle, received his education, like the above-named cellists, from Grutzmacher, at the Leipsic Conservatoire. In the year 1866 he was appointed, on account of his much esteemed performances, first Violoncellist of the Academy Orchestra, its well as teacher at the Conservatoire at Leipsic. Compelled by a nervous affection to abandon entirely, a few years later, Violoncello playing, he devoted himself to the study of singing, and became a singing master. He worked with success as such in the school of music in his native town. The loss which cello playing sustained in him is proved by his pupil,

JULIUS KLENGEL, one of the most excellent and purest violoncello players of the younger generation. He was born on September 24, 1859, at Leipsic, and is now working in his native town as first cellist in the Gewandhaus Concerts and as teacher at the Conservatoire. Klengel has not only made himself known outside the sphere of his work by his remarkable playing, but also as a most attractive composer for his instrument. Amongst his works we will mention only the compositions published, as Op. 1, 3, 4, 5, 7,9, 10, 11, 15, and 20. Of those of his works not numbered must be named a collection of "Unsere Lieblinge," which contains "the most charming melodies of ancient and modern times," cleverly arranged with piano accompaniment.

A second pupil of Hegar's is HERMANN HEBERLEIN, who also had the advantage of Carl Schroeder's and. Bernhard Cossmann's instruction. Born on March 29, 1859, at Marckneukirchen, in the kingdom of Saxony, Heberlein went, from 1878-1877, to the Leipsic Conservatoire. In the last years of that period he gave concerts in South Germany, and finally was appointed to be solo cellist at the town theatre of Konigsberg. In 1883 he undertook the office of teacher of his instrument at the music school there. He wrote "Elementary Studies" for the Violoncello, "Practical Cello Studies" (2 books, Op. 5), Variations for the Violoncello, with piano accompaniment (Op. 2), Two Cello Pieces (Op. 8), four Pieces de Salon (Op. 6), and also published a Violoncello school.

The favourable results which had been attained in Leipsic by Friedrich Grutzmacher in the training of his pupils made him very soon the most attractive teacher in Germany. As already mentioned, after he had accepted the flattering invitations made to him to go to Dresden, pupils came to him from all parts. Only the most famous amongst them are noticed below.

OSCAR EBERLE, born June 5, 1841, at Kiossen, on the Oder, received from his father, who was town music director, his first instruction on the cello. At fourteen he had already made such progress that he was taken into the Bilse Orchestra, which at that time had its headquarters at Liegnitz. He belonged to it for five years, in the course of which he was also employed as soloist in the concerts of the Society. He was then for two years Grutzmacher's pupil in Dresden; advancing rapidly under his direction, he attained to artistic maturity. In 1867 Eberle was summoned to Rotterdam as teacher to the music school there, as well as solo cellist at the concerts given by the "Matchappy tot bevordering der Toonkunst." He was immediately engaged as soloist for the German Opera at Rotterdam. He retired from the latter post in 1886. Eberle is an honorary member of the Concert Society, with which he worked, as well as of the Society of Students, "Sempre crescendo," at Leyden, a proof of how highly his talent is appreciated in Holland.

RICHARD BELLMANN, born on June 8, 1844, at Freiburg, in the kingdom of Saxony, at first benefited by the instruction of F. A. Kummer, and then went through a course under GrUtzmacher, after having for three years frequented the Conservatoire at Dresden. He then went to Paris, in order to study composition under the direction of Franchomme. This connection, however, did not last long, as Bellmann was soon summoned to the Grand Ducal Kapelle at Schwerin, as first solo cellist. His performances met with such high appreciation that he was distinguished by the Grand Duke with the bestowal of the title of Chamber Virtuoso. In 1878 Bellmann gave up his position at Schwerin, which he had occupied for twelve years, took up his residence at Bonn, and was engaged chiefly as a concert player. A short time after was formed at Cologne the Heckmann String Quartet, which gained such reputation in recent years during its tours in Germany, England, and Italy, which Bellmann joined, and to which he still belongs as a special ornament.

Bellmann must be considered one of the most accomplished violoncellists of the present time, not only as a soloist, but also as a quartet player. With complete technical training, his playing is distinguished by its exemplary purity, rarely fine tone, its elegance, and its noble and accurate musical rendering.

EMIL BOERNGEN spent his youth in Emden, where his father was music director. He was born on February 2, 1845, at Verden. He received his first instruction in music from his father. He then began the study of violoncello playing under the direction of the chamber virtuoso, C. Mattys, in Hanover. He obtained, however, his higher education under the direction of Grutzmacher, and had the benefit of his tuition for three years. In 1870 Boerngen went to Helsingfors. He there undertook the post of cellist at the theatre. At the same time he was frequently a much appreciated player both as soloist and in quartets. Two years after he accepted the invitation to Strasburg Theatre as solo cellist. After several years of activity he relinquished his post and went to Salzburg, where he was engaged for the Mozarteum. Since 1875 he has been teacher of violoncello playing at the Royal Music School at Wiirzburg. In consideration of his successful work at that Institute, in 1883 he received the title of Professor as a mark of distinction. During his official activity he was also occupied as solo and quartet player.

RICHARD VOLLRATH was born on December 16, 1848, in the Thuringian town of Sonneberg, belonging to Saxe-Meiningen, where his father filled the office of town musician. The boy early tried several instruments, till he at length showed his preference for the violoncello. His first teacher was the royal chamber musician, Rods, at Rudolstadt. During the years 1865-1867, he studied underthe direction of Grutzmacher. Having fulfilled his military term at Coblenz, Vollrath belonged, from 1871-1873, to the Royal orchestra at Ems as cellist. In the following winter he joined the Mannsfeld first orchestra at Dresden. He made use of his residence there to renew his studies under Grutzmacher. He then went as first cellist for two years into the Wiesbaden orchestra. Since September, 1876, he has belonged in the same capacity to the Municipal orchestra at Mainz. Besides his official post he is also prominent as a solo player and an appreciated teacher.

CARL FRIEDR. WILH. FITZENHAGEN was educated under the guidance of Grutzmacher as a violoncello virtuoso of eminent rank. This distinguished artist was born on September 15, 1848, in the little town of Seesen, in Brunswick, where his father was music director. He early began his practice-in his fifth year on the piano, in his eighth on the violoncello, in his eleventh year on the violin. Besides these instruments, he learned by degrees several wind instruments in order to take part in his father's musical entertainments when a vacancy occurred in his orchestra. By means of this many-sided capacity, Fitzenhagen gained, even in early youth, a certain routine in musical matters which, later on, stood him in good stead.

Fitzenhagen received the first regular cello instruction, besides making progress in piano and violin playing, from the Ducal chamber musician, Plock, in Brunswick. But he soon made his appearance there as soloist. His really serious study,- however, was in the beginning of October of the year 1862, when he became Theodore Muller's pupil. After a lapse of three years, Fitzenhagen was heard by the Duke of Brunswick in the Theatre Royal. The trial performance was so satisfactory that the Duke, in order to forward him in his artistic career, released him entirely from military service. Patrons of high standing immediately supplied him with the means of prosecuting his cello studies under Grutzmacher. This occurred in May, 1867. A year later, notwithstanding his youth, he was named a member of the Hofkapelle of Saxony.

From that time he frequently made his appearance as a solo player; took part, in 1869, in the general musical gathering in Leipsic, and in 1870 at the Beethoven Festival. Franz Liszt wished to gain him for the orchestra at Weimar, but Fitzenhagen preferred to accept an offer made to him to be Professor at the Imperial Conservatoire in Moscow. From that time he has developed an uncommonly active and successful artistic capability as a concert player as well as chamber music performer. He gained striking results in his professorial relations, for he is at present looked upon as the cello master of greatest repute in Russia. The best of his pupils will be mentioned in the last section of this book.

After Fitzenhagen had been appointed Concertmaster to the Russian Imperial Musical Society, the direction of the Moscow Music and Orchestral Union, which organises annually some concerts, was made over to him some three years ago.

Fitzenhagen was very industrious as a composer. Besides a String Quartet, which gained the prize of the St. Petersburg Chamber Musical Union, he wrote four Cello Concertos, a Suite for Violoncello and orchestra, a "Fantasia" on motifs from Rubinstein's "Dimon," with orchestra; a long list of drawing-room pieces, amongst them twelve little pieces which embraced a Quarto, a Ballade with orchestra, and a book containing technical Cello Studies.

ALBERT PETERSEN, born on October 23, 1856, in Lubeck, after he had studied under Grutzmacher, was first cellist in the private bands at Dresden, Kreuznach, and Cassel; accepted engagements for America and Pawlowsk, near St. Petersburg, and has since filled for ten years the position of solo cellist in Magdeburg, as well as that of cello master at the Musical Institute there.

CARL MONHAUPT, born on March 9, 1856, in Hamburg, began his musical studies with piano playing. In his fifteenth year he decided for the violoncello, of which he learnt the elements from the cellist named Katerbaum, of the Central Hall orchestra of his native town. In 1872 he betook himself to Sondershausen, in order to pursue his studies under the direction of his brother Fritz, (He is now member of the Royal Theatre Band at Cassel. No information about him could be obtained. ) who at that time belonged to the Royal orchestra of Sondershausen as first cellist. Here he remained three years, when he went to Dresden in order to perfect his education under Grutzmacher's guidance. At the present time he is first violoncellist of the Musical Society and of the Orchestral Union at Berne, as well as teacher at the music school there.

OSCAR BRUCKNER, born on January 2, 1857, at Erfurt, received his first cello instruction from the Concertmaster, Herlitz, in Ballenstedt, after he had been prepared by his father for the musical career. But he completed the most important part of his studies under Fr. Grutzmacher, in Dresden, where he also received instruction in the theoretical portion from Felix Draseke.

After he had finished his course of Study, Bruckner undertook concert tours in Russia, Poland, and Holland. Wherever he was heard he was marked by well-merited success. Besides his clever "technique" he made a great impression by his broad and full tone. From 1882-1884 he was engaged as violoncellist at the Grand Ducal Court Theatre in Neustrelitz. On retiring from this post he received the title of Chamber Virtuoso. Since 1886 he has been solo cellist at the Theatre Royal, Wiesbaden. At the same time he takes part in the Violoncello teaching at the Wiesbaden Conservatoire.

Bruckner's official successor in Neustrelitz, OTTO KOHLER, was born December 21, 1861, at Neuhaldensleben (in the district of Merseberg). He went to school at Chemnitz and having performed his military service, he entered the Regiment of Life Grenadiers at Dresden. He there remained until 1882, in order to perfect himself, under Grutzmacher, in Violoncello playing, which he had already pursued by himself. In January, 1883, Kohler was engaged for the Kapelle of the Duke of Coburg Gotha. He remained two years at this post, during which he went through a theoretical course under the direction of the Court Kapellmeister, Langert. In 1885 he was offered the post of solo cellist at Neustrelitz. In this position he is at present.

A German-American is also amongst Grutzmacher's pupils. EMIL SCHENK, born at the beginning of the sixties at Rochester, North America. In 1879 his father, a native of Baden, who had settled as music teacher in the above mentioned American town, sent him to Dresden to complete his studies under Grutzmacher's direction. He made rapid progress, and soon attracted the attention of the Dresden musical circle to so great a degree that at the end of the same year he was appointed to the Hofkapelle there. His engagement, however, was only temporary, for as soon as Schenk had completed his studies under Grutzmacher, he returned to America. On his frequent public appearances in New York he has had brilliant success. The well-known Director of the Philharmonic Concerts, Theod. Thomas, did not let the favourable opportunity escape of gaining over the highly gifted young artist as solo cellist for his orchestra. He attained to ever-increasing appreciation and popularity. But as Thomas so frequently undertook tours with his orchestra in the States of the Union, this occupation became at length too irksome to him; he released himself from the contract, and from that time, encouraged by the sympathy of the public, he lives in New York as an independent artist, and works not only as a concert player, but also as a teacher of great repute.

Another excellent pupil of Grutzmacher is HUGO BECKER, son of the famous Violinist who founded the Florentine Quartet, but who unhappily died in the flower of his age, in 1884. Hugo Becker was born on February 13, 1863, at Strasburg, in Alsace, and at the beginning of the sixth year of his life received instruction from his father on the piano and the violin. When he was nie years old, he heard a Violoncello played in church, and this made such an impression on him, that he decided in favour of that instrument. A pupil of Menter's, the cellist Kundinger, of Mannheim, whither Becker'a parents had gone in 1869, undertook his education. At fifteen he had made such progress, that the place of second cellist was offered to him in the orchestra of the Mannheim Court Theatre, which he accepted. At the end of nine months he gave this up in order to go through a course under Grutzmacher, from whose instruction he benefited for five months. Having returned home, his father undertook his further tuition, and used to play to him studies and concert pieces on the Violin which greatly assisted his progress in regard to their comprehension and rendering. The circumstance that he was constantly hearing in the parental home a great deal of chamber music in the best manner and himself took part in it, was of great value for the young man's musical education. In the year 1880 Jean Becker resolved to undertake concert tours with his Bon Hugo and his brother and sister JEANNE (a pianist) and Hans (tenor), during which the young Cello virtuoso, then seventeen years of age, gained his first laurels. While the Becker family quartet was performing in London, Hugo Becker had the opportunity of being brought a good deal in contact with Piatti, which was not without producing some influence on his playing. The practices at the De Swert Violoncello Concerts, under the direction of their founder, also contributed to his progress.

For two years, from October, 1884, till the autumn of 1886, Becker filled the office of solo cellist at the Frankfort Opera. From that time he accepted no other post, in order to leave his time quite free for concert engagements. Frankfort-on the-Main, has continued to be his place of residence. We must mention that he has the title of Grand Ducal Chamber Virtuoso of Baden..

KARL LUBBE, born on February 11, 1839, in Halberstadt, began his musical career as a member of the regimental band at Magdeburg, was appointed to the Grand Ducal Berneburg orchestra at Ballenstedt, and came to Dessau on the union of the Anhalt Duchies. A he showed himself very assiduous the Duke of Dessau granted him the means of perfecting himself still more under the guidance of Grutzmacher. He gained great dexterity and skill, but was inclined to the various experiments of a virtuoso, which he carried out also in his compositions. His cello pieces have not been published. After Drechsler was pensioned Lubbe became his successor as first Violoncellist in the Court Chapel at Dessau. He died in his prime on January 7, 1888.

HUGO JAGER took his place, born on May 17, in Warmbrunn. He profited by the instruction of Popper and Grutzmacher, became then a member of the Hofkapelle of the Prince of Hohenzollern, in Lowenberg, and after relinquishing this was employed in Ems, Altenburg, and Brunswick. Since 1874 he has belonged to the Ducal band in Dessau.

AUREL V. CZERWENKA, born on December 31, 1860, at Kar6msebes, in the Hungarian state, Szoreny, was first a pupil of the Steiermark Musical Union at Gratz. In 1882 he came to Dresden and frequented the Conservatoire as a pupil of Grutzmacher, under whose direction he afterwards studied privately. On the completion of his education he worked for a time as first cellist in the Mannsfeld orchestra in Dresden, and then he undertook the office of solo cellist at the Land Theatre, as well as that of teacher at the Steiermark Musical Union at Gratz. His performances show genuine artistic talent and training.

Two other pupils of Grutzmacher's must be here mentioned concerning whom there is very defective information. The first to be considered is THEODOR KRUMBHOLZ, who unfortunately died while still young. He was first Violoncellist at the Stuttgard Court Kapelle, with the title of Royal Wurtemburg Chamber Virtuoso.

H. RUHOFF became, after he had finisbed his studies, first cellist at the Theatre Royal at Pesth, but was obliged to give up his place on account of a nervous affection, and still lives as a music master at Zurich, where he teaches chiefly at his brother's Musical Institute.

A. HEYN, born in Dresden, is exclusively a pupil of Grutzmacher. After his training he was first occupied in the orchestra of German Opera at Rotterdam. He is now working as first Violoncellist in the Grand Ducal band in Darmstadt. As regards the Violoncellists, Smith and Rildinger, who were likewise Grutzmacher's pupils, information will be given among the Dutch and Danish cellists. As a third pupil of Drechsler.

KARL SCHRODER, born on December 18, 1848, in Quedlinburg, must be here noticed with distinction. He had already made such progress in cello studies at fourteen years of age that he was able to be received into the Hofkapelle at Sondershausen. After he had joined his brothers in forming a string quartet, which was distinguished by his performances, he accepted, in 1878, the place offered to him as first cellist in the Brunswick Kapelle. Only a year later, however, he consented to go as first representative of his instrument to Leipsic, and he also superintended at the same time the cello instruction in the Conservatoire there. From Leipsic Schroder went, in 1881, as Hof-Capellmeister to Sondershausen. He worked at this post for five years ; he then undertook the direction of German Opera in Rotterdam. Thence he went, in 1887, as Hof-Capellmeister to Berlin. Since the autumn of 1888 he has been occupied as Capellmeister at the Stadt-Theatre at Homburg.

Schroder published the following Cello compositions: Three Concertos (Op. 32, 36, and 55), three concerted pieces (Op. 38, 51, and 56), an Allegro di Sonatina (Op. 13), Pieces of National Airs (Op. 14), a Song without Words (Op. 15), and a Nocturne (Op. 42). Besides these he produced a Violoncello school (Op. 16), a school of scales and chords (Op. 29), a school of shakes and staccatos (Op. 39), a practical course for Violoncello playing, as well as a,long series of Etudes and Exercises. The latter bear the Nos. 22, 25, 35, 40, 44, 45, 46, 48, and 57. He also edited orchestral and concert studies as well as five classical pieces.

The same continuity of Violoncello playing as that of the Dresden school cannot be traced in Vienna because, though at the beginning of our century several cello masters were actively working at the same time, a similar connection did not exist amongst them as in Dresden. But the Austrian capital had the advantage of a richly endowed musical life by means the heroes of instrumental music, which had a quickening progressive effect on all branches of executive art, and specially on Violoncello playing. Although this influence was not confined to Vienna alone-since the works of these highly-gifted men, after their publication, spread over an ever-widening circle-still the musical world of Vienna was the chief gainer thereby.

It was at the source and therefore had the opportunity of knowing and studying the creations of these master composers at first hand. We need only recall the Schuppanzigh Art Society, which practised and produced Beethoven's Quartets before they were published. The Violoncello was represented at the end of last century and the beginning of the present one by Anton Kraft and, later, by Joseph Linke. For the first Beethoven composed the Cello part of the Triple Concerto (Op. 66). The Sonatas (Op. 5, 69, and 102) of the great master may be here mentioned as important works of Violoncello Literature.


Germany in the 19th Century, Part Two

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