Cello Playing in 18th Century Germany

THE Violoncello had already found its place as an orchestral instrument about the year 1680 at Vienna, and in 1709, in the Dresden Royal orchestra, as we saw. Towards 1720 it had penetrated also into Northern Germany, since the band of the Duke of Holstein Gottorp evidently possessed one. At the same period this stringed instrument must have been extensively used in other parts of Germany-otherwise Joh. Seb. Bach would scarcely have conceived the idea of composing for it his solo sonatas, which were already extant between the years 1717-1724. There were even at that time two German violoncellists who appeared to Gerber of sufficient importance for him to give them a place in his Dictionary of Music. Their names are: Triemer and Riedel.

JOHANN SEBALD TRIEMER was born at the end of the seventeenth or the beginning of the eighteenth century, in Weimar, where he was instructed in instrumental playing by the Ducal Chamberlain and Musician, Eylenstein, and in the theory of music by Ehrbach, an old musician of Weimar. As soon as Triemer had made progress sufficient to figure as a soloist, he undertook a concert tour which led him to Hamburg, for, in 1725, he was a member of the theatre orchestra there. Two years after he went to Paris, and remained until 1729. During this time he pursued the study of composition under the direction of Boismortier. ( Fetis mentions him as a mediocre composer. He was born at Perpignan in 1691, and died in Paris in 1765.) He then went to the Dutch city of Alkmaar, and, later on, to Amsterdam, where he died in 1762. At Amsterdam he had six "Sonate a Violoncello solo e continuo " published.

The Silesian, RIEDEL, was not only a cellist, but also chief of the Fencing School at Liegnitz. He must have been a very good player for his time. About 1727 he went to St. Petersburg, and was there the instructor of the EMPEROR PETER II (who, as is known, only reigned three years- 1727-1780), both in cello playing and in fencing.

Riedel was also member of the Russian Court band, where he still was in 1740.

The number of German violoncello players very soon increased. Amongst them, Werner must next be mentioned, born at the beginning of the eighteenth century in Bohemia, and died in Prague, 1768. He must have been a most excellent player, since, as Gerber says, in his time no foreign cellist ventured to play in Prague. Werner was for some time established at the Crusaders' Church, in Prague. Of his numberless concertos and solos for violoncello, none seem to have been printed.

The violoncellist, CASPAR CRISTELLI, born in Vienna at the beginning of the eighteenth century, was, in 1757, chief composer in the service of the Archbishop of Salzburg. He specially distinguished himself as an accompanist, a talent at that time highly prized, for the cellists who accompanied the vocal recitatives played an important part. Cristelli also wrote several compositions for his instrument.

JOHANN BAPTIST BAUMGARTNER, born 1723, in Augsburg, died May 18, 1782, at Eichstadt, as chamber virtuoso of the Prince Bishop, was educated in Munich, and then made a concert tour through Germany, England, Holland, and Scandinavia. Besides some violoncello concertos he wrote: "Instruction de musique theoretique'et pratique a l'usage de violoncelle." This instruction book appeared in 1643 or 1777, at the Hague.

WENZEL HIMMELBAUER, born 1725, in Bohemia, was in Prague in 1764; went, however, to Vienna, and had a good reputation as cellist. His playing was chiefly famed for firmness of the bow stroke and quickness at sight reading. C. F. Daniel Schubart remarks of him in his "Ideen zu einer Aesthetik der Tonkunst ": "He was a sincere and a most agreeable violoncellist, without any artistic pride; a man of the most upright and amiable heart "; and he further remarks: - No one uses his bow so quietly and easily as this master. He executes the most difficult passages with the most extraordinary ease, and especially pours out his heart in the Cantabile. His sweet expression, his delightful phrasing, and, moreover, his great power in the middle tints are the wonder of all connoisseurs and hearers." He composed little for his instrument, but this little has all the more intrinsic value.

Of Himmelbauer's compositions there appeared at Lyons, 1776, as Op. 1, duets for flute or violin and violoncello. A few duets for two violoncellos remained unpublished. The MS. was, in 1795, in the possession of the Bohemian cellist, Emeric Patrzik, and later fell into the hands of the author of "The Art Lexicon for Bohemia," G. J. Dlabacz.

PHILIPP SCHINDLOKER must be mentioned as a noteworthy pupil of Himmelbauer. Born on October 25, 1753, at Mons, in Hennegau, he went very young to Vienna, whither his parents betook themselves. There he began the study of the violoncello. In 1795 he was appointed solo violoncellist at the Royal Opera House, Vienna, and three years later to the orchestra of the Cathedral, S. Stephan. In the year 1806 he received the title of Imperial Chamber Virtuoso. He died April 16, 1827. Sixteen years previously he had already retired into private life. Of his compositions only a serenade for the Violoncello and Guitar was published. The rest, consisting of a Concerto, Sonatas with bass accompaniment, and a Rondo also with bass accompaniment, remained unpublished.

His nephew, WOLFGANG SCHINDLOKER, born in 1789 at Vienna, was educated by him as a clever cellist. After he had been heard at fourteen years of age at a concert, he went in 1807 as chamber musician into the service of the Court at Wurzburg. His compositions consisted of a "Grand duo and three Duets, which were published.

FRANZ JOSEPH WEIGL belonged to the best German cellists of the last century; he was the father of the opera composer, Joseph Weigl, formerly in much repute. He was born on March 19, 1740, in a Bavarian village, and through the special recommendation of Joseph Haydn was received on June 1, 1761, into the orchestra of Count Esterhazy. In 1769 he left and joined the orchestra of the Italian opera in Vienna. After three years of active work there he was appointed to the Imperial band, and made Court and Chamber musician ; his death took place on January 25, 1820. Weigl composed, but if for his own instrument is unknown.

ANTON FILTZ, a member of the Electoral Chapel at Mannheim, was a gifted cellist and composer. He died in 1768 in early manhood, before his talent had fully developed. He left in MS. several duets and solos, as well as Concertos for the Violoncello.

JOH. GEORG SCHETKY, born 1740, at Darmstadt, deserves special mention as a pupil of Filtz, whose instruction he enjoyed for one month, after his father, who was Secretary to the Grand Duke of Darmstadt and tenor singer at the Cathedral, had given him his first musical education. He seems to have taken up cello playing by himself at first, but his theoretical education was carried on by the Concertmaster Enderle. In the year 1761 Schetky went for six months with his father and two sisters to Hamburg. There he had the opportunity of hearing great artists, which incited him to zealous study on his instrument. On his return to Darmstadt he found a post in the orchestra there. Now and then he performed at concerts in the neighbouring towns. After the death of his parents he finally quitted Darmstadt in 1768; He visited Hamburg and then London, where the patronage of Joh. Christoph Bach was of service to him. Schetky did not however remain long in the English capital, as he received a proposal to go to Edinburgh, which he accepted. He very soon, in consequence of his marriage with a rich widow, retired into private life, being known to fame only through his compositions. These, taking no account of an important collection of various orchestral and chamber music works, consist of numberless Violoncello Concertos, Duets for Violin and Violoncello, Sonatas for Violoncello and Bass, and "Twelve Duets for two Violoncellos, with some Observations and Rules for playing that Instrument " (Op. 7). In these duets, as the title says : "Schetky had a scholastic aim in view." Yet they can scarcely be called a violoncello school.

One of the last of Schetky's published works is his Op. 13, which contains six Sonatas for Violoncello with unfigured bass. The compositions therein contained give a distinct idea of his fluent though superficially mechanical manner of writing. It can readily be discerned that Schetky had for the time in which he lived a remarkable technique in playing. He must have been able with ease to play at sight the first violin part in Quartets, a talent which proves at once his skill and readiness. His power and agility in bowing as well as his staccato playing in up and down strokes were famous.

According to Gerber's account, Schetky died in Edinburgh in 1773. In Forster's "History of the Violin "it is said, on the contrary, that his death took place-only in 1824. ( The sketch of Schetky contained in Forster's "History of the Violin,"deviates substantially from Gerber's information, which I have followed. Forster says that this artist studied jurisprudence at Jens and, under Frederick the Great, followed as a volunteer the forces commanded by Blocher in the seven years' war. Then he also mentions his being a pupil of Philip Em. Bach. Whether this statement have any real foundation, and to what extent, must remain undetermined. )

As a "clever and solid concert player and composer for his instrument," MARKUS HEINRICH GRAUL, who was born in the first half of the last century, is mentioned by Gerber. In the year 1766 he belonged to the Royal orchestra at Berlin. He also composed pieces for the cello, but did not publish them.

His Pupil, JOH. HEINRICH VIKTOR ROSE, born on December 7, 1743, at Quedlinburg, was early instructed to play on various instruments by his father, who was town musician in the above-named place. The Princess Amalie, who then filled the office of Abbess in the Quedlinburg Convent, became interested in him, and took him with her to Berlin in 1756, where he studied cello playing for some years under Graul and Mara. In 1768 be entered the service of the Prince of AnhaltBernberg. Four years later he relinquished that in order to travel, and accepted a place in the band of the Duke of Dessau. He did not long remain there, for in the year 1772 he accepted an offer to be organist at the place of his birth. According to Gerber's account he possessed not only an extraordinary readiness on the violoncello, but also a most expressive, graceful rendering. Of his compositions, there were three solos with bass accompaniment published as Op. 1.

His best pupil was FRIEDRICH SHRODEL, born on February 4, 1754, in Baruth ; died January 10, 1800, at Ballenstedt. Gerber calls him one of the greatest masters on the violoncello of that period, and adds that many were of opinion that be surpassed the famous Mara in precision and delicacy.

JOHANN JAGER must be noticed with special distinction as belonging to the German cellists of the last century. Schubart, who must have known him personally, says in his eccentric manner: "Jager is quite original; his bowing new, unconstrained, and impetuously fiery. All masters apply the thumb to the D string, and so bring out the high passages; but Jager departs entirely from this method--a proof that his genius has more than one way of attaining his aim. He goes with lightning dexterity up to the D and A strings in the highest parts, and brings out the most delicate phrases with the greatest tenderness and sweetness. . . . Jager is also a great reader, prima vista--that is, he can play from the music at sight the most difficult pieces with wonderful art."

In regard to the Jager Violoncello compositions, which altogether remained unpublished, Schubart remarks: "He follows no rules in composition, but is guided solely by his ear. His Concertos and Sonatas consist chiefly of original themes, which are grand, noble, adapted to the instrument, and full of difficulties. Jager caused his pieces to be revised by good musicians, whereby they were put into correct form. At the same time it must be confessed that the superfluous boughs, the offspring often of an unbridled fancy, have not all been pruned off."

As Jager's compositions are not extant there is no possibility of putting to the proof the justice of Schubart's judgment.

We can only gather that Jager was self-taught. He appears to have been so even as a player. There is nowhere any intimation that he had any regular instruction on the violoncello. Gerber makes only the remark that Jager became, under the influence of the Kapellmeister at Wiirtemburg, the great man "whom the world admired.

As Fetis informs us, Jager was born on August 17, 1748, in the little town of Schlitz. ( Gerber gives 1745 as the year of Jager's birth, and Lauterbach in Upper Hesse as the place. ) He was originally an oboe player in the service of Holland. He cultivated at first as his favourite instrument the French horn. After he had been actively engaged at the Court of Stuttgard, the post of chamber virtuoso in the Anspach Bayreuth orchestra fell to his lot. The position left him a great deal of spare time, so that he was able to practise diligently the violoncello, and also to undertake concert tours, which led him to London in 1781.

Jager had two sons who were educated as violoncellists under his direction. The elder, JOHANN ZACHARIAS LEONHARD, born 1777, at Anspach, showed an early development and was able, even at nine years of age, to execute solos with rapidity, certainty, and accuracy. In 1787 he played at the Prussian Court, and on that occasion so greatly excited the admiration of the Queen that she wished to acquire him for the Royal band in Berlin, to which, however, the father of the boy would not yield on account of his youth. The Queen, therefore, proved her interest in him by granting him a life-long pension of 100 thalers. On his return home the Margrave of Anspach appointed him his chamber musician.

He did not, however, remain long in this position, and went with his father to Breslaw. There Jager's younger son was born, whose christian name was Ernst. He possessed even more talent than his brother, for it was not long before he overtook him in cello playing, to which the instructions he received from Bernhard Romberg greatly contributed. Until the year 1825 he lived lit Breslaw, after having travelled through a great part of Germany and Hungary. Then he responded to a summons from the Bavarian Court to go as solo cellist to Munich.

Besides his two sons, Johann Jager educated also ALEXANDER UBER, born at Breslaw, 1783, as a capable violoncellist. His father, by profession a solicitor, was an enthusiastic lover of music, occupied his leisure hours with the composition of chamber music, and instituted weekly two concerts in his house. At one of them symphonies were produced, at the other quartets and quintets. At the beginning of our century, Carl Maria von Weber, who began his career at the Breslaw Theatre, took part in these musical entertainments, as did also the Director of music in the University at Berne and the piano player Klingohr. The intercourse with these men was not of less importance for the musical development of young Uber than his musical life in his father's house. At first he enjoyed the violin instruction of Jannizeck, while Schnabel conducted his theoretical studies. But he very soon took up the violoncello, for which Jager was his teacher. In the year 1804 he undertook his first tour, but returned soon to Breslaw. In the course of time Uber filled many positions as Kapellmeister, until about 1820 he settled at Basle, where he was married. In 1828 he undertook the post of Conductor with the Count of Schonaich and Prince von Karolath, but, in the following year, death carried him off. Of his compositions for the violoncello, Uber published a Concerto (Op. 12), Variations with Quartet accompaniment (Op. 14), Six Caprices (Op. 10), and Sixteen Variations upon a German air.

During the second half of the last century the art of viololicello playing had already very extensively spread throughout Germany and had many more noteworthy representatives than in Italy and France. In the latter country the higher pursuit of music was confined chiefly to Paris, and in Italy, as we have already remarked in a previous paragraph, the opera was most decidedly in the foreground, while there was no great demand for instrumental music. On the contrary, Germany called out more instrumental vigour in order to satisfy the need of good musicians for the numberless Courts. According to Gottlieb Friedrich Krebel's European genealogical handbook of the year 1770, there were, including the Romaic-German Emperor and the King of Prussia, over two hundred secular and spiritual princes and sovereign counts, the greater number of whom supported Kapelle (bands) or at least chamber music. These persons considered it of utmost importance to have about them not only good violin and wind instrument players, but also capable violoncellists, and consequently more talented young men devoted themselves in Germany to instrumental music, and especially to violoncello playing, than elsewhere.

We have already seen that the introduction of the Violoncello from Italy to Germany was by way of Vienna. At least, up to the present time, there are no proofs that the appreciation of this instrument and its reception into the orchestra had taken place sooner in other German places than in the Austrian capital. There was an eager demand for music from the reign of Maximilian I., to which the musical inclinations of the Imperial family contributed. Maximilian II., Ferdinand III., Leopold I., Charles VI., Francis I., and Joseph II., each in his own way, presented to the inhabitants of Vienna a good example as regarded the encouragement of music. Already several decades before the birth of the last-mentioned prince, who himself played the violoncello, this instrument had been naturalised in Vienna as an orchestral instrument. Under his reign, after the advent of Franciscello, whose performances gave an impulse to emulation, Vienna was already in possession of some remarkable solo cellists. To them belong the two SCHINDLOKERs and JOSEPH WEIGL, who have already been mentioned, as well as JOHANN HOFFMANN, member of the Court band, MARTEAU, HAUER, and KUFFEL; ( Hanslick: " History of Concert Life in Vienna," p. 115. ) somewhat later followed the cellists CAJETAN, GOTTLIEB, SCHEIDL, and H AUSCHKA.

Nothing is known concerning Scheidl. We have more information regarding VINCENZ HAUSCHKA, who was born on January 21, 1766, at Mies, in Bohemia, and died in Vienna, 1840. He received his first musical education as choirboy iu the Prague Cathedral. After six years' study he devoted himself to violoncello playing, in which the Bohemian, Christ, instructed him for a short time. He eventually studied independently, At sixteen he had made such progress that he found a place in the Kapelle of Count Thun. Two years later he was released from this engagement by the death of his benefactor. Hauschka then undertook a tour in Germany. In 1792 he appeared in Vienna, where he gained everywhere applause by his performances. Later, a situation was offered to him in the Imperial State service. From that time he made no professional use of his art. But he did not quite abandon it, as he took part in the foundation of the " Society of the Friends of Music,"o r "Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde," as well as the "Concert Spirituel," and was occupied also in both these musical institutions which were of such importance to musical life in Vienna.

The Dresden Kofkapelle possessed, in the second half of the last century, two noteworthy cellists, HEINRICH MEGELIN and CALMUS. The first, according to Gerber's testimony, was counted amongst the cleverest players of his instrument. Calmus belonged, in 1797, to the orchestra of the Altona " National Orchestra," and was then a highly reputed member of the Kof kapelle at Dresden, where he died January, 1809.

In Berlin the violoncello first came to be appreciated at its due value through Frederick William II. It is true it had been already well represented under Frederick the Great, in the Court band, by GRAULI and the two cellists MARA, (father and son), to be mentioned elsewhere; but. that great monarch, whose favourite instrument was the flute, does not appear to have thought much of the violoncello, which he feigned to allude to as the "nasal instrument," an expression which might have been bestowed formerly on the gamba.

His nephew, Frederick William II., liked the violoncello, and well understood how to handle it. He appears to have played the gamba in his younger days, for it is reported that the gambist Hesse first taught him, though this instruction might also have referred to the violoncello, which many gambists took up at the same time. Later on the cellist GRAZIANI was master to the Prussian heir to the throne. But when DUPORT THE ELDER came to Berlin, in 1773, GRAZIANI was dismissed in favour of him. The future king, Frederick William II., must have played with taste and readiness. It is well known that Beethoven dedicated to him his two Cello Sonatas (Op. 5).

Amongst the cellists who belonged to the Berlin Chapel towards the end of the last century must be mentioned JOHANN GEORGE FLEISCHMANN, a skilful player, who was at first in the service of the Duke of Courland, but afterwards went to Berlin. In 1792 he followed the king, on his expedition against the French, as his accompanist.

A second cellist, who worked at the same time in the Berlin Kapelle, was S. L. FRIEDEL.

As a pupil of Duport the younger, HEINRICH GROSSE, born at Berlin, is distinguished. In 1798 he joined the Royal band.

The elder Duport educated the cellist 0. F. G. HANSMANN, who was born at Potsdam on May 30, 1769, and was engaged at fifteen years of age in the Berlin Kapelle. In 1790 he undertook the post of Choir-director at the opera. He appears to have quite given up his work as Kapellmeister when, in 1809, the place of Organist at the Church of St. Peter, at Berlin, was given to him. He continued in the service of the church until the year 1833, when he was appointed Royal Accountant. Three years later, on May 4, 1836, death called him away.

Finally, the Berlin Kapelle possessed, in HERBIG, a Pupil of the younger Mara.

At the Court of Meeldenberg, in 1785, FRANZ XAVER HUBER, born in the little Bavarian town of Ottingen, was working as a much esteemed violoncellist.

In the Brunswick Kapelle was A. W. F. MATERN, after the middle of the last century a player of some repute, who brought up his two sons as cellists.

Hanover was represented by the brothers FRIEDRICH ERNST and PHILIPP FRIEDRICH BENEKE. Both belonged to the Elector's Court and Chamber Music Society.

The Hofkapelle at Dessau possessed, in JOH. CHRISTOPH BISCHOFF, born in 1748 at Erfurt, a very fair violoncellist.

As one of the most creditable cellists of the second half of ,the last century, JOH. CONRAD SCHLICK must be mentioned. He is said to have been born at Munster in 1759, and died at Gotha in 1825, where he was established for more than forty years with the title of Concertmaster of the Ducal band, after he had, about 1776, belonged to the Episcopal Chapel at Munster. In the year 1785 he married the very celebrated violin virtuoso, Regina Strinasacchi, with whom he was engaged, in the winter of 1799-1800, as solo player at the Leipsic Gewandhaus.

Schlick had a gifted pupil in J. G. HEMMERLEM, born at Bamberg, who held the post of Concertmaster to the Elector Bishop of Fulda at the end of last century.

At the same time with Schlick, JOHANN DAVID SCHEMER, born in 1748, died on October 20, 1802, was employed as a much-liked violoncellist in the Gotha Kapelle.

The Ducal band of Meiningen also possessed a good violoncellist. It was J. J. KRIEGCK, originally violinist and member of the Flemish Opera at Amsterdam.' During his residence in Paris he took up the violoncello, and received there instruction from the younger Duport. After he had studied for awhile under this artist he was engaged by Prince Laval Montmorency, in whose service he remained four years, when he was summoned to Meiningen. There he worked and was still living in the year 1810. Kriegck was born on June 25, 1750, at Bibra, in the neighbourhood of Eckertsberga, in the district of Merseberg. His cello compositions, consisting of three Concertos and some Sonatas with bass, are among the best of that period.

The violoncellist HIZELBERGER was, in 1786, in the service of the Bishop of Wurzburg as chamber musician.

At the Court of Wallenstein, about 1790, PAUL WINNEDERGER was engaged as Director of the Royal Hunt and Table Music. In the year 1800 he exchanged this post for that of cellist and composer to the French Theatre at Hamburg.

In the Thurn-and-Taxis Kapelle at Regensburg were two cellists, GRETSCH and KARAUSCHEK. The first was there until his death, which occurred in 1784. Karauschek, on the contrary, who was famous as an excellent cellist, only belonged to it from 1750-1760. Religious fanaticism caused him later to go into a Carmelite cloister. He died in 1789.

To the Munich Court music, in the second half of the last century, belonged VIRGILI. ( According to Fetis. Gerber says in his " Dictionary of Musicians " that, about the year 1755, a cellist, by name VIRGIL MICHEL, belonged to the orchestra at Munich. Apparently he is identical with the one mentioned by Fetis. ) He is remarkable as having given his first instruction to the violoncellist MORALT. This last artist, who was born in the Bavarian capital in 1780, and died in 1829, finished his training under the violoncellist ANTON SCHWARZ, Of Mannheim, and, having completed his studies, went into the Hofkapelle of his native city.

Another pupil of Anton Schwarz whose name is well known was MAX BOHRER, born at Munich in 1785. He made such progress, that already as a boy of fourteen years of age he entered the Hofkapelle there. Soon after he undertook a concert tour with his brother Anton, who was an able violinist, and this led him to Vienna. There he heard Bernhard Romberg, who henceforth became his model. Towards 1830, after he had for a time been a member of the Royal band at Berlin, he went to Paris, where his fine tone and his ease in surmounting the most difficult passages excited admiration. Then he travelled through Germany, in 1832 was appointed first cellist to the King of Wurtemburg with the title of Concertmeister, went in 1838 (for the second time) to St. Petersburg, and then proceeded to Italy. The years 1842-1843 he spent in America giving concerts. He took his last journey, which led him to the countries of Northern Europe, in 1847, but he was not able to obtain the same amount of approbation, for he had lost a great deal of his power of execution. He died in 1867. He edited three Concertos, several "Airs vaxies," a "Fantasia " on a Russian Volkslied, a Rondoletto with a quartet accompaniment, and some Duets with violin.

Contemporary with the above-named Moralt in the Bavarian Court Kapelle, "PETER THE GREAT," so-called, according to Gerber, " on account of his talent," born at Zweibrucken, in 1778, was actively engaged, and in 1792 was promoted to be member of the Bavarian Hof kapelle.

For Stuttgard the violoncellists Zumpsteeg and Kaufmann deserve consideration.

JOH. RUDOLPH ZUMPSTEEG was the more important. He was born on January 10, 1760, at Sachsenflur, in the Odenwald, and died on January 27, 1802, at Stuttgard. The royal Kapellmeister Poli (at Wurtemburg) was his teacher. Under his direction Zumpsteeg became not only an excellent performer, but also a creditable composer of music. He received a learned education; at the Karlschule, where he entered into friendly relations with Schiller, and set to music many of his poems. He made himself particularly known through ballad compositions, which were first attempted by him.

After he had quitted the Karlsehule, Zumpsteeg devoted himself entirely and actively to art. Up to the year 1792 he was simply member of the Stuttgard Court band, of which he became the head after the decease of his master, Poli. Zumpsteeg played the violoncello with "deep feeling, rare precision, and decisive power," as Gerber remarks. He wrote for it a Concerto, Sonatas, a Duet, and a Trio.

JOHANN KAUfMANN, born in 1760, was likewise a pupil at the Karlschule, whence also came ERNST MUSLER, born in 1761, in Stuttgard. He led a Somewhat variable life. In the year 1788 he went on an artistic tour, during which he played especially in Vienna and Berlin. Soon after he took an engagement in the band of the Prince of Donaueschingen. But in 1791 he relinquished this position in order to obey a summons to Zurich. Thence, size="4" six years later, he returned to his native town, and in 1801 went to Augsburg, and, in 1802, to Vienna, to hold concerts. Finally he assumed the office of choir director at the Evangelical Church at Augsburg, in which place he died on February 28, 1837.

The Electoral Kapelle at Mannheim possessed in CARL LOCHNER, born about 1760, died 1795, as well as in PETER RITTER, remarkable cellists Ritter, born at Mannheim in 1760, must have had higher claims to distinction on account of his musical education than Lochner, for he was promoted to the direction of the opera at the theatre of his birthplace. With the exception of a journey to Berlin, undertaken in the year 1785, where he played before the Court, he seems to have pursued uninterruptedly his official duties.

To the Mannheim orchestra belonged the violoncellists, JOHANN FURST, LUDWIG SIMON, and ANTON SCHWARZ, already mentioned,

As an offspring of Mannheim, FRANZ DANZI must also be mentioned, the son of the first violoncellist in the orchestra there, Innocenz Danzi. His father gave him instruction on the cello, and Abt Vogler in composition. He soon made such rapid progress in playing that already, in 1778, he was received into the Electoral Kapelle, which, as is known, was transferred to Munich about this time in consequence of the union of Bavaria with the Palatinate. He immediately began his work as a composer for the opera. Meantime, in the year 1790, he was united in matrimony to the exquisite singer, Margaretha Marchand, daughter of the Opera Director in Munich. The following year the.young couple went to Leipsic and Prague, where Danzi conducted the opera of Guardassoni's Italian Opera Company, while his wife took part as a singer. In 1794. 1795 he travelled with his wife in Italy, and in 1797 they both returned to Munich on account of the failing condition of the latter's health. Danzi was immediately appointed ViceKapellmeister, and displayed most praiseworthy activity. He was, however, so overcome by the death, in 1799, of the partner of his life, that for many years he seemed unable to perform the duties of his vocation, and as it was repugnant to his feelings to take up work again in the place where his family happiness had been wrecked, he obeyed a summons to Stuttgard as Court Kapellmeister. He there remained a year, at the end of which he assumed the direction of the opera at Carlsruhe. Danzi was born May 15, 1763, and died April 18, 1826.

In the chapel at Mainz, in the year 1783 to 1784, there were the clever cellist and lutist, JOH. CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB SCHINDLER, the brothers JOSEPH and ANDREAS SCHWACHHOFER, and at the Court of Treves was also at that time CARL CASPAR EDER, born 1751 in Bavaria, who made himself known as a cello player in several tours.

To the Electoral Kapelle at Bonn belonged JOSEPH REICHA and MAXIMILIAN WILLMAN.

REICHA, uncle of the gifted composer, Anton Reicha, wag born at Prague in 1746 ; found at first a position with Count Wallenstein, and a few years later received the appointment of Concert leader at Bonn. He was working there witb some reputation until his death in 1795.

WILLMAN, born in 1768, at Forchtenberg, a village between Wurzburg and Mergentheim, was member of the Bonn Hofkapelle in the last decade of the past century, after he had been resident for a few years in Vienna. Later on he returned to Vienna and found a post there as solo player at the theatre. Willman, who died in 1812, had two daughters, the elder of whom was a pupil of Mozart for the pianoforte, and the younger an excellent Singer. Louis von Beethoven solicited the hand of the latter, but in vain.

Besides Reicha and Willman, the celebrated violoncellist, BERNHARD ROMBERG, belonged to the Kapelle at Bonn from 1790-1793. With regard to this artist the necessary information will be given in the next section on Germany, for the distinctive influence of his work belongs to the nineteenth century. To the above-mentioned German violoncellists are to be added Immler, Schonebeck, Rauppe, Bauersachs, Alexander, and Arnold.

IMMLER, born in 1750, at Weitramsdorf, near Coburg, found, a sphere for work in Gottingen. His playing was distinguished especially for its fine tone and agreeable manner of rendering. He was also a good violinist.

KARL SIEGMUND SCHONRBECK, born on October 26, 1758, at Liibben, in Lower Lusatia, was originally destined for the surgical profession, but felt himself so irresistibly drawn towards music that a11 attempts to hold him back from it failed through his opposition. In the fourteenth year of his age he was made town musician in his native place. During his fifteenth year he devoted himself, mostly alone, to the learning of various instruments. Then he went as assistant to the town band of the Silesian town of Griineberg.. There he had the opportunity of hearing a travelling violoncellist, whose performances so inspired him that he forthwith resolved to, devote himself to cello playing, with which until then he had never occupied himself. He was his own master. After two years of energetic work, Schonebeck went as cellist into the private band of a Count Dohna, though he only remained in it until face="Courier">1780, preferring to undertake a post which was offered to him as town musician at Sorau. A journey to Berlin procured him the possibility of hearing the violoncello virtuoso Duport, at Potsdam, which incited him to renewed study. Soon after he made, at Dresden, the acquaintance of the French cellist Tricklir, whose playing gave him fresh impulse. From that time Schonebeck led a restless, wandering life, which prevented his attaining to the concentration of his powers. At short intervals he filled, one after the other, positions at the Court of the Duke of Courland, at Sagan; with Count Truchsez, at Waldenberg; and still further at Konigsberg. At length, wearied with a musical life, he returned home and devoted himself to husbandry, but did not long persevere with this, and resumed again his artistic career. In the year face="Courier">1800 he performed at Leipsic, where his pleasing cello compositions, and his playing "with a fine intonation, and rare finish," met with applause, as Gerber remarks.

JOH. face="Courier">GEORG RAUPPE, born in July, face="Courier">1762, at Stettin, devoted himself in early youth to cello playing, and under the elder Duport attained to the rank of a master. His studies ended, he travelled through North Germany as well as Denmark and Sweden. In the year face="Courier">1786 he betook himself to Amsterdam, and there fulfilled the duties of first cellist in the German Opera as well as at concerts. While in that position he died on June 15, 1814. His playing was famed for the beauty and power of his tone, as well as for readiness and purity of rendering.

CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH BAUERSACHs, born on June 4, 1767, at Pegnitz, in the principality of Anspach, was not only unusually clever on the violoncello, but also played the bassetborn with great skill. He travelled through Hungary and Italy, and then also in Germany, giving concerts with good success. Yet he did not succeed in gaining a permanent post. He therefore gave up music as a means of livelihoodi and devoted himself to a miner's career. On December 14, 1845, be died at Sommerda.

JOSEPH ALEXANDER, who, in 1800, lived at Duisburg, and 'worked there, is worthy of mention on account of two books of Studies, which however are long since obsolete. They consist of a violoncello school, published in 1801, and of an "Air avec xxxvi Variations progressives pour le Violoncelle avec, le doigte on differentes clefs, accomp. d'un violon et d'une basse "(1802).

size="4" JOHANN GOTTFRIED ARNOLD, born on February 1, 1773, in the Wurtowburg town of Niedernhall, died July 026, 1806, at Frankfort-on-the-Main, size="4" was the son of a school teacher. He early applied himself to music, and chiefly to the violoncello, so that at eight years of age he attracted notice by his performances. In 1785 his father placed him under the tuition of Ungelsauer, the town musician. With whom he studied for five years. At the expiration of that time Arnold found employment with his uncle, who was Court and town musician at Wertheim. During this period he pursued, alone, with great zeal, his cello studies, but at the same time did not neglect theoretical study. After some fruitless attempts to make himself known as a soloist beyond his native place, he visited Regensburg, where just then the violoncellist Max Willman, mentioned above, was residing. He gave Arnold, during some few months, instructions on the cello, the first which he had received on this instrument. In the year 1796 he had the opportunity, in Hamburg, of hearing Bernhard Romberg and learning from him. Very soon after Arnold was established size="4" in the theatre orchestra at Frankfort. At the some time he gave private lessons. He was esteemed by his contemporaries as a great violonciallo virtuoso, whose playing, on account of its "enchanting tone," was excellent, not only in Allegro, but also in Adagio passages. Amongst the German violoncellists of the last century an amateur deserves mention, who so distinguished himself, that he may properly be counted among the artists of his instrument. It was the PRINCE CHRISTIAN VON WITTGENSTEIN-BERLEBERG. He was born on December 12, 1753, and in his youth occupied himself eagerly with singing and clavier playing. In more advanced years he learnt the violoncello and succeeded so well that he was heard with the greatest applause publicly at a concert in Wetzlar. He maintained towards the end of his life a private band. This patron of art died October 4, 1800.

These distinguished men up to this period, with few exceptions, endeavoured, besides their practical work, to create by their compositions a literature for their instrument. They wrote concertos, sonatas, and works with variations, in considerable numbers. ( Fetis has mentioned the greater number of these compositions in the respective articles of his " Biographie Universelle des Musiciens." ) These productions were substantially increased by other musicians who were not cello players.

Before all, the most prominent are PHIL. EMANUEL BACH and JOSEPH HAYDN.

The former composed a Violoncello Concerto, the latter several pieces of the Same kind. What a lively interest Haydn, especially, took in the violoncello is proved by the fact that he used it as an obbligato in two of his Symphonies. The first of them (B flat major) appears with the title, "Symphonie Concertante A Violon, Violoncell, Flutte, Hautbois et Basson obliges,"as Op. 81 ; the other, called "le Midi,"was written in 1761 . ( It is to be found in Carl Bank's recently published Haydn Symphonies in score. Compare also Pohl's " Haydn Biography," 1., 229 and 285. ) Therein the violoncello is employed as a solo instrument, chiefly in the Adagio, the close of which ends with an elaborate cadenza for violin and violoncello. The cello part in the above-mentioned "Sinfonie Concertante" contains striking difficulties, especially where it is employed in the higher tones. ( Recently has come out a Duet (D major) in three movements for violin and violoncello, by J. Haydn, which he must have composed during his residence in London for a certain William Forster. These compositions recall, not only in respect of form, Tartini's manner, so that one is induced to look upon them as Haydn's early work, which he wrote down from memory as a recollection. )

Amongst other composers of that period who composed Concertos for the violoncello, we will only mention PAUL WRANITZKY, IGNAZ PLEYEL, FRANZ ANTON HOFMEISTER, FRANZ CHRISTIAN NEUBAUER, LEOPOLD HOFFMANN, and JOHANN LUDWIG WILLING. There were also amateurs who attempted compositions of this kind, such as ERNST LUDWIG GERBER, the author of "The Historical-Biographical Dictionary of Musicians," and CHRISTIAN FERD. DANIEL SCHUBART, who, though he had a musical education,was however really by vocation an author. Further Joh. Geog. Albrechtsberger, Joseph Eybler, F. A. Hoffmeister, C. G. Neubauer, Ignaz Pleyel produced Duets for two violoncellos, violin and cello, or for viola and violoncello. There is also in existence a Cello Sonata with unfigured Bass by the contrabassist Christian Spurni (Spourni), who, born in Mannheim, was, during the years 1763-1770, member of the orchestra of the Italian Opera in Paris, and then of Her Majesty's in London.

The greater number of these compositions, whether emanating from violoncello players or not, are interesting only in so far as from them may be gathered what position German violoncello playing held in the second half of the last century. We have now only to state that the technique. at the end of the period mentioned had made great progress, and that Germany, as compared with Italy, even taking into consideration certain cello pieces by Boccherini, was not behind hand. A universally current method for the manipulation of the fingerboard and also for bowing had indeed not yet been attained in either of the two countries. The testing in every way of the executive capabilities of the violoncello naturally followed, as well as discovering the various combinations for playing double stops, the formation of passages and ornaments, and the endeavour to develop and present them in a manner suitable to the nature of the instrument. This tedious work must on the outset have necessarily led to productions in which the question of imagination would not be taken into consideration. In fact, it is with few exceptions of very little value, and as further the figures and runs are antiquated, the compositions in question can awaken no real sympathy. But these trial stages which cello composition had to pass through were necessary in order to arrive at a literature of artistic worth.

France in the 18th Century

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