Cellists are constantly exposed to a great deal of string literature, which is easily accessed and available to interested readers. Cello information also turns up in other, unusual and most interesting locations, as evidenced by routine data base searches done on a variety of scientific and technical data bases offered through Medline, BRS/CDP, and Dialog, all of which have some information concerning the cello. These vendors offer hundreds of searchable data bases.
Approximately 25 predominately scientific and technical data bases were randomly selected and searched. Data bases were not used where the term "cello" was directly searchable. Only unusual materials were sought. While many, but not all, of the selected data bases are American, they are international in scope and content. Many citations were frequently repeated in the various data bases, demonstrating the overlap in the literature covered by each data base. Due to the uniqueness of this combination of topic and data bases, it was unexpected to find such a broad array of citations.
There were a number of "false drops"; grammatically correct usage of the word in a different context. Cello is the name given to an Internet web browser, somewhat less popular than "Netscape". There were also many citations reflecting the use in microscopic anatomy and some acronyms, such as Columnar cEll Lined lower Oesophagus.
In the list that follows, I have abstracted articles of interest and edited the author abstracts in order to concentrate on materials that I feel would be of interest to Internet Cello Society readers. It is not, however, an exhaustive bibliography. Each of these articles should be available from your local library or through interlibrary loan.
Moreno, J.C.; Gata, I.M.; Garcia-Bravo, B.; Camacho, F.M. Fiddler's Neck. American Journal of Contact Dermatitis. 8(1):39-42, 1997. The dermatologic pathological condition of musicians is a rare medical problem. The authors draw attention to what is called "Fiddler's Neck" a process that is peculiar to violin, viola and cello players and that may be caused by two different mechanisms: contact allergen reaction of a mechanical action.
Shapiro, P.E. "Cello Scrotom" Questioned. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 24(4):665, April 1991. Letter to the editor discussing a recent article "Dermatologic Problems of Musicians." Original article designates "cello scrotom" caused by "irritation from the body of the cello." The author of this letter speculates that the irritation was more likely to be from the chair as contact of the body with the cello would require an awkward playing position. (Secondary article: Rimmer. Dermatologic Problems of Musicians. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 22:657-63, 1990. Primary article: Murphy, J.M. Cello Scrotum. British Medical Journal. 2:335, May 11, 1974)
Royster, J.D.; Royster, L.H.; Killion, M.C. Sound Exposures and Hearing Thresholds of Symphony Orchestra Musicians. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 89(6):2793-2803, June 1991. The author's assessed the risk of noise induced hearing loss among musicians in the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Hearing threshold levels were found to be significantly better for both ears of musicians playing bass, cello, harp or piano and for the right ears of violinists and violists than for their left ears or for both ears of other musicians.
Palmer, J.B.; Uematsu, S.; Jankel, W.R.; Arnold, W.P. A Cellist with Arm Pain: Thermal Asymmetry in Scalerus Anticus Syndrome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 72(3):237-42, March 1991. A report on a cellist with pain and coldness of the upper extremity. Abnormal studies were instrumental in uncovering intermittent compression of the subclavian artery; this prompted the authors to study effects of cello playing ontemperature asymmetry. This patient's abnormal skin temperature may have reflec ted sympathetic vasomotor hyperactivity.
Keira, T.; Aizawa, Y.; Karube, H.; Niituya, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kuwashima, A.; Harada, H.; Takata, T. Adverse Effects of Colophony. Industrial health. 35(1):1-7, 1997. Colphony is an unhomogenous mixture of resin acids, used in industry, daily life and medical supplies. Cases of dermatitis by depilatory agents, anti slipping cream for ballet shoes or resin for cello strings have been reported.
Crummer, C.G.; Walton, J.P.; Wayman, J.W.; Frisina, R.D. Neural Processing of Musical Timbre by Musicians, Nonmusicians, and Musicians Possessing Absolute Pitch. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 95(5 part 1):2720-27, May 1994. Cognitive event related potentials were measured during a timbre discrimination task from three subject groups varying in musical experience. The three timbre series, all of which consisted of the same pitch, were (1) string instruments (cello and viola), (2) flutes (silver and wood), and (3) instruments of slightly different size (B-flat and F tubas). Findings suggest that perceptual tasks involving timbre, a fundamental building block of music, elicits different brain activity from memory of information processing systems from subjects with varying degrees of musical training.
Thiem, B.; Greene,D.; Prassas, S.; Thaut, M. Left Arm Muscle Activation and Movement Patterns in Cellists Employing a Playing Technique Using Rhythmic Cuing. Medical Problems of Performing Artists. 9(3):89-96, 1994. This study investigated a specific technique of playing the cello in rapid left hand successions. The technique used rhythmic cuing [sic] and was aimed at reducing rigid positioning throughout the left upper extremity by the facilitation of a shoulder abduction/adduction and forearm pronation/supination movement pattern supporting the 4-finger succession. The goal was to enhance the dynamic nature of performance through emphasis on the beat with larger muscle groups, allowing opportunity for the digital musculature to experience a decreased tendency toward static loading. At the end of two weeks of daily practice, the group more experienced in the technique had a statistically significant change in electromyographic patterns in which there was an increased facilitation of phasic muscle drive and an avoidance of simultaneous activity in the anterio-posterior forearm musculature during a large segment of the movement pattern.
Saldana, H.M.; Rosenblum, L.D. Visual Influences on Auditory Pluck and Bow Judgments. Perception and Psychophysics. 54(3):406-416, September 1993. Author's attempted to find an analogue of the McGurk effect (visual information specifying a speaker's articulatory movements can influence auditory judgments of speech) by using non-speech stimuli - the discrepant audiovisual tokens of plucks and bows on a cello. Results revealed that subject's auditory judgments were influences significantly by the visual pluck and bow stimuli. A second experiment in which speech syllables were used demonstrated that the visual influence on consonants was significantly greater than the visual influence observed for the pluck-bow stimuli. A third experiment, visual stimuli consisting of the words pluck and bow were found to have no influence over auditory pluck and bow judgments. These results are discussed in terms of motor theory, ecological and FLMP approaches to speech perception.
Gonzalez, M.; Rought-Rought, S.; Cantineau, A. Tendon Overstrain of the Cello Player. Archives des Maladies Professionelles de Medicine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. 53(3):220-221, 1992. In French, without an English abstract.
Pitt, M.A.; Crowder, R.G. The Role of Spectral and Dynamic Cues in Imagery for Musical Timbre. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 18(3):728-738, August 1992. The musical quality of timbre in based on both spectral and dynamic acoustic cues. A multi-part experiment examined whether these properties are represented in the mental image of musical timbre. One of the experiments established that imagery occurs for timbre variations within a single musical instrument, using plucked and bowed tones from a cello. Spectral properties appear to play a much larger role that dynamic properties in imagery for musical timbre.
Hartsell, H.D.; Tata, C.E. A Retrospective Survey of Music Related Musculoskeletal Problems Occuring in Undergraduate Music Students. Physiotherapy Canada. 43(1):13-18, Jan-Feb 1991. Factors relating to overuse problems in music students. Piano, violin, cello and "other" accounted for the majority of injuries although variations were noted between the sexes. Body regions frequently injured were representative of the requirement of the instruments, but were generally: hands, wrists and lumbar regions. Prevalent causes listed were technique, fatigue and posture. Concludes that overuse syndrome characterized by pain and local tenderness is the nemesis of the undergraduate music student.
Kahans, D.; Calford, M.B. The Influence of Music on Psychiatric Patients Immediate Attitude Change Toward Therapists. Journal of Music Therapy. 19(3):179-187, Fall 1982. Music may facilitate an immediate attitude change toward a therapists by patients. To determine the characteristics of such a change, recorded (popular and classical) and live cello music was employed. Significant attitude change was found when the music presented was the preference of the therapist and when this preference was conveyed to the audience. Maximal attitude change toward a therapist occurs under conditions in which the therapist presents new aspects of behavior to the patients.
Fry, H.J.; Rowley, G.L. Music Related Upper Limb Pain in Schoolchildren. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 48(12):998-1002, 1989. Two British secondary schools were surveyed to assess the prevalence of upper limb pain among specialist music students compared with students in a regular school setting. Female students tended to report pain more often than male students, but for both significantly higher prevalence was found in the music school. Pain in the regular school was most often attributed to writing, whereas in the music school, it was associated with the playing of all instruments, but most particularly with cello, flute and clarinet. Results of this study are in agreement with those previously published from Australia and North America. On the balance of probabilities, the pain is due to overuse syndrome, which is very common in musicians and well known in writers.
Grevsten, S.; Lindsjo, U.; Olrud, S. Recurrent Ulnar Nerve Dislocation at the Elbow. Report of a Non-Traumatic Case with Ulnar Entrapment Neuropathy. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica. 49(2):151-153, April 1978. An unusual case of habitual recurrent ulnar nerve dislocation at the elbow is described. The case was complicated by non-traumatic entrapment neuropathy interfering with the patient's profession as a cellist.
Salzberg, R.S,; Greenwald, M.A. Effects of a Token System on Attentiveness and Punctuality in Two String Instrument Classes. Journal of Music Therapy. 14(1):27-38, Spring 1977. Seventh grade students receiving instruction in cello, violin or viola were sampled. Results show that the establishment of a token system increased appropriate behavior and punctuality of the students. The implications of these findings are pointed out. An additional recommendation of the system is its simplicity; it does not require changing the organization of the session.
Papich, G.; Rainbow, E. A Pilot Study of Performance Practices of Twentieth-Century Musicians. Journal of Research in Music Education. 22(1):24-34, Spring 1974. Carried out graphic analysis of recordings of violin, cello and double bass students. Pitch vibrato was present in the initial attack of all tones. When each performer used vibrato, the speed of the vibrato and pitch width were the same in solo playing and ensemble playing. Pitch vibrato appeared to be an oscillation in an upward direction from conceived pitch rather than above and below it. When performers erred in going from a lower pitch to a higher note, the error tended to be an overestimation of the interval. Comparisons of solo with ensemble performances indicate that solos tended to be slightly sharper in pitch and that pitch adjustments in ensemble performance tended to be downward.
DeTroch, D. Intrinsic Validity of the Contents of a Battery of Tests of Musical Aptitude: Critical Study. Archives de Psychologie. 41(162):119-143, Fall 1971. Discusses E. Gordon's "Profiles of Musical Aptitude" a test consisting of 250 items made of short musical phrases played on the violin with an optional cello part and registered on tape. The profile is divided into three parts (tonal imagery, rhythmic imagery, musical sensitivity), the total battery including seven tests. It is concluded that the music is of low quality and is poorly played. The test is, therefore, not considered fitting for an evaluation of fundamental aptitudes. In French.
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